L-Istati Membri tal-UE jeħtieġu aktar ambizzjoni biex jilħqu l-mira konġunta tal-enerġija rinnovabbli

Biddel il-lingwa
News Ippubblikat 13 Feb 2019 Mibdul l-aħħar 08 Mar 2019
3 min read
Is-sehem ta’ sorsi tal-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-użu tal-enerġija fl-Unjoni Ewropea (UE) rdoppja mill-2005 ’l hawn, iżda dan it-tkabbir beda jonqos f’dawn l-aħħar snin, speċjalment minħabba ż-żieda fil-konsum tal-enerġija u n-nuqqas ta’ progress fis-settur tat-trasport. Ir-rapport il-ġdid tal-Aġenzija Ewropea għall-Ambjent (EEA) juri li jeħtieġ li l-Istati Membri tal-UE jżidu l-isforzi tagħhom biex jilħqu l-mira għall-2020 tal-enerġija rinnovabbli.

 Image © Tim Laws, WaterPIX /EEA

Ir-rapport tal-EEA “Renewable energy in Europe — 2018” (‘L-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-Ewropa - 2018’) jiddeskrivi l-progress fl-użu tas-sorsi tal-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-UE, abbażi tad-data uffiċjali għall-2016 u l-istimi preliminari tal-EEA għall-2017.

Ir-rapport juri li l-sehem ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli fl-użu tal-enerġija finali fl-UE żdied minn 16.7 % fl-2015 għal 17.0 % fl-2016 u għal madwar 17.4 % fl-2017. Għalkemm l-UE kompliet tagħmel progress biex tikseb il-mira tagħha għall-2020 għas-sehem ta’ 20 % ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli fl-konsum tal-enerġija finali gross, żidiet riċenti fil-konsum finali tal-enerġija f’xi Stati Membri qed idewmu r-ritmu ta’ tkabbir fis-sehem ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli mal-UE kollha.

Sabiex jilħqu l-mira għall-2030, jeħtieġ li b’mod kollettiv, l-Istati Membri tal-UE iżidu s-sehem tas-sorsi ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli għal tal-anqas 32 % tal-konsum tal-enerġija finali gross. Ir-rapport tal-EEA juri li, bħalissa, l-użu tal-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-Istati Membri individwali jvarja b’mod wiesa’, bejn 'il fuq minn 30 % tal-konsum tal-enerġija finali gross fl-Awstrija, fid-Danimarka, fil-Finlandja, fil-Latvja u fl-Iżvezja għal anqas minn 9 % fil-Belġju, fil-Lussemburgu, f’Malta u fl-Olanda.

Sejbiet ewlenin oħrajn

Fl-2017, 85 % tal-kapaċità tal-enerġija li kienet għadha kemm ġiet installata fl-UE, kienet ta’ oriġini rinnovabbli. Tliet kwarti minn din il-kapaċità tal-enerġija rinnovabbli l-ġdida, ġiet minn enerġija tar-riħ u mill-fotovoltajċi solari. Terz mill-elettriku kollu kkunsmat fl-UE fl-2016 u fl-2017 oriġina minn sorsi rinnovabbli.

It-tisħin u t-tkessiħ jibqgħu s-settur dominanti tas-suq għall-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-UE, b’sehem ta’ madwar 19 % tas-sorsi ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli fl-2016 u fl-2017. Is-settur tat-trasport għadu lura ħafna b’sehem ta’ 7 % biss tal-użu tal-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-istess snin. Il-biċċa l-kbira tal-enerġija rinnovabbli użata għat-trasport ġejja mill-bijofjuwils. Bijofjuwils iċċertifikati li jikkonformaw mal-kriterji ta’ sostenibbiltà skont id-Direttiva dwar l-Enerġija Rinnovabbli jistgħu biss jitqiesu għal dawn il-miri.

Skont ir-rapport, l-UE għadha l-pijunier globali fil-kapaċità tal-elettriku rinnovabbli per capita, iżda ċ-Ċina issa qed tinvesti aktar f’kapaċità ġdida. Is-sehem ta’ impjiegi relatati mal-enerġija rinnovabbli fil-forza tax-xogħol qed javvanza ukoll aktar malajr fil-Brażil u fiċ-Ċina milli fl-UE.

Iż-żieda fl-użu ta’ sorsi ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli ppermetta lill-UE tnaqqas id-domanda tagħha għall-fjuwils fossili u l-emissjonijiet ta’ gassijiet serra assoċjati tagħhom. Skont l-analiżi tal-EEA, l-emissjonijiet totali ta’ gassijiet serra tal-UE kienu jkunu 9 % ogħla fl-2016, u 10 % ogħla fl-2017, jekk l-użu dejjem jiżdied ta’ sorsi ta’ enerġija rinnovabbli mill-2005 ma ssostittwixxix 11 % tal-konsum gross intern tal-fjuwils fossili tal-UE matul dan il-perjodu.

Ir-rapporti “Renewable energy in Europe” (‘L-enerġija rinnovabbli fl-Ewropa’) jikkumplimentaw il-valutazzjoni annwali tal-EEA tal-progress lejn il-miri tal-klima u tal-enerġija tal-UE fil-pubblikazzjoni Trends and projections in Europe 2018 (Xejriet u projezzjonijiet fl-Ewropa 2018).

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Overview of electricity production and use in Europe In 2016,  low-carbon energy sources (i.e. renewables and nuclear energy) continued to dominate the electricity mix for the second year in a row, together generating more power than fossil fuel sources. Fossil fuels (i.e. coal, natural gas and oil) were responsible for 43 % of all gross electricity generation in 2016, a decrease of 11 percentage points across the EU compared with 2005 (54 %). By way of contrast, the share of electricity generated from renewable sources has grown rapidly since 2005, but the pace of growth has slowed down after 2014. In 2016, renewable electricity reached almost one third (29 %) of all gross electricity generation in the EU. This is twice as much as in 2005. As such, renewable sources generated more electricity in 2016 than nuclear sources or coal and lignite. Nuclear energy sources contributed roughly one quarter (26 %) of all gross electricity generation in 2016. The transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels, together with improved transformation efficiencies in electricity generation, led to an average annual 2.6 % decrease in CO 2 emissions per kWh between 2005 and 2016. Final electricity consumption (the total consumption of electricity by all end-use sectors plus electricity imports and minus exports) in the EU increased by one percent in 2016 compared with 2015, reaching the same level as in 2005. The sharpest growth was observed in the services sector (1.2 % per year) and the sharpest decline in industry (-1.0 % per year). With regards to the non-EU EEA countries,  between 2005 and 2016, electricity generation increased by an average of 4.9 % per  year in Turkey, 7.1 % per year  in Iceland and 0.7 % per year in Norway.
Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption The share of renewable energy in gross final energy use in the EU has almost doubled since 2005. It reached 17.0 % in 2016 and is expected to have reached 17.4 % in 2017, according to the early estimates from the European Environment Agency (EEA) . These levels are higher than those from the indicative EU trajectory for these years set by the Renewable Energy Directive .  The increase in the share of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption has slowed down in recent years. An increasing energy consumption and lack of progress in the transport sector imperil the achievement of both 2020 targets on renewable energy and energy efficiency at EU level. In 2017, according to the EEA's early estimates:  progress towards national targets deteriorated across the EU, with 20 Member States (all but Cyprus, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia and the United Kingdom) meeting or exceeding their indicative targets set under the Renewable Energy Directive, compared with 25 Member States on target in 2016. In addition, only 16 Member States (all except Belgium, Cyprus, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain) reached or exceeded the trajectories set in their own National Renewable Energy Action Plans, compared with 19 in 2016; 11 countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania and Sweden) had already managed to achieve their binding renewable energy share targets for 2020, as set under the Renewable Energy Directive; renewable energy accounted for 30.6 % of gross final electricity consumption, 19.3 % of energy consumption for heating and cooling, and 7.2 % of transport fuel consumption in the whole EU.

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