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Total reported damage caused by natural disturbance in Europe between 1950 and 2019

Country data from European database on disturbances

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Deforestation, EU-27 in 1000 ha

Deforestation in the EU-27 as collected by countries for the reporting on forest resources to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Forest Europe processes

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Distribution of the eight most relevant pressures from forestry on forest habitats and species (2013-2018)

The eight most relevant pressures on forests from forestry activities.

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Forest area in the EU-27, 2020

Forest area in the EU-27 as collected by countries for the reporting on forest resources to the UNECE, FAO and Forest Europe processes

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Decline in ocean pH measured at the Aloha station (University of Hawaii) and yearly mean surface seawater pH reported on a global scale (Copernicus Marine Service)

A decline in pH corresponds to an increase in the acidity of ocean water. Data originate from the Aloha station pH time series (adapted from Dore, J.E., et al., 2009, 'Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12235-12240). Changes here are similar to those that are observed over a shorter time frame in Europe (see here: http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/figures/WGI_AR5_Fig3-18.jpg). In figure, "In situ measurement (Aloha station)" corresponds to data based on in-situ measurements, while "Calculated (Aloha station)" corresponds to calculated data. Global annual average of surface ocean pH from the Copernicus Marine Service, based on a reconstruction method using in situ data and remote sensing data, as well as empirical relationships. Indicator is available at annual resolution, and from the year 1985 onwards. The error on each yearly value varies, and is added to the data file sheet. The estimated yearly uncertainty envelope shown in the figure is defined as the annual mean of pH ± 2 standard deviations, which corresponds to a 95% confidence interval of the mean estimate.

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Population-weighted concentrations (micrograms per cubic meter) of fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) in the richest and poorest NUTS3 regions in the EU-27, 2007-2020

The figure shows the annual average population weighted concentration of PM₂.₅ in the poorest quintile (upper line) and richest quintile (lower line) of NUTS3 regions in the EU, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power standard.

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Ratio of population-weighted concentrations of PM₂.₅ in EU NUTS3 regions in the most deprived quintile relative to those in the least deprived quintile, 2007-2020

The graph shows the ratio of the annual average population weighted concentration of PM₂.₅ in the poorest quintile divided by that of the richest quintile of NUTS3 regions in the EU, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power standard, per year.

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Trends in EU-27 emissions of selected air pollutants, as percentage of 2005 levels

The figure shows the trend in total emissions of the main air pollutants, indexed as a percentage of their value in the reference year 2005

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Percentages of contribution to primary emissions of major hazardous air pollutants by source (EU-27, 2020)

The figure shows the contributions of the main source sectors to the emissions of key air pollutants in the EU-27 in 2020.

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Water pollutant releases changes from 2010 to 2021 for the EU Member States

The table shows the top five emission reduction changes in pollutant releases into water in EU-27 Member States from 2010 to 2021.

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