Annex 2 — Progress towards renewable energy targets: data and methodology

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Progress towards energy efficiency targets: data and methodology

A2.1 Reporting requirements related to renewable energy

Under the RED, Member States need to report on their progress towards the deployment of renewable energies (EU, 2015b). Reporting under the RED takes place biennially in a standardised format. Furthermore, under the Energy Statistics Regulation, Member States also report data on their renewable energy deployment to Eurostat.

A2.2 Data sources related to renewable energy deployment

The analysis presented in this report is based on several sources relating to renewable energy use in Europe.

A2.2.1 Historical trends in the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption

The assessment of progress towards objectives and targets for the use of RES is based, for the most part, on information reported by Member States to Eurostat under the Energy Statistics Regulation and the RED, and published by Eurostat via its SHARES tool (Eurostat, 2017d).

A2.2.2 Share of RES in gross final energy consumption in 2015

The shares of RES in gross final energy consumption in 2015 were estimated by Eurostat, based on national data transmission under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics (EU, 2008). In accordance with the accounting rules in the RED, electricity generated by hydro- and wind power were normalised to account for annual variations (hydropower over 15 years and wind power over five years). For details on the normalisation rules, see the SHARES manual provided by Eurostat (Eurostat, 2017d). Because of their insular and peripheral geography, Cyprus and Malta’s gross inland consumption is disproportionally high for aviation, and they are thus strongly affected by current technological and regulatory constraints. Therefore, they have exemptions with regard to the amounts by which they exceed the EU’s average gross final consumption of energy in aviation in 2005 as assessed by Eurostat, i.e. 4.12 %.

A2.2.3  Approximated shares of renewable energy use in 2016

The approximated shares of renewable energy use in 2016 were estimated by the EEA and will be published in early 2018 (EEA, 2017k). National information on approximated shares have been provided by Germany, Malta, Spain and the United Kingdom.

A2.2.4  The 2020 RES targets and indicative trajectories for the period from 2011 to 2018

The 2020 RES targets for each Member State were taken from Part A of Annex I of the RED, and the indicative trajectories for the period 2011-2018 were taken from Part B of Annex I of the RED (EU, 2009d).

A2.2.5  Anticipated national RES trajectories for the period from 2010 to 2020

Anticipated national RES trajectories for the period 2010-2020 were derived from information submitted by Member States to the European Commission in 2010, in the context of their NREAPs, also taking into account some updates made thereafter. These trajectories reflect how Member States themselves anticipate that their renewable energy deployment will develop up to 2020 (EEA, 2011; EC, 2013c).

A2.2.6  The shares of energy from renewable sources on a sectoral level

The report also presents data on RES use on a sectoral level (for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport). These data are based on Eurostat’s SHARES tool (Eurostat, 2017d). Approximate 2016 values were estimated by the EEA (EEA, 2017k).

A2.3   Tracking progress towards renewable energy targets

The progress of Member States towards their targets under the RED is assessed by comparing the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption with the indicative trajectory set under the RED for the period 2015-2016. This assessment is complemented by preliminary estimates for the year 2016.

Assessments of progress are made using the following methodology:

  • A Member State is considered on track (green) if its 2015 share of energy from renewable sources matched or exceeded its indicative 2015-2016 indicative trajectory under the RED.
  • A Member State is considered not on track (orange) if its 2015 share of energy from renewable sources was below its 2015-2016 indicative trajectory set under the RED.

Table A2.1 Current progress towards indicative trajectories under the Renewable Energy Directive

Member State

RES shares

Renewable Energy Directive:
2020 target

 

Target

Gaps to target

 

2015

2016 (approximated)

2020

2015

2016

 

%

%

%

percentage points

percentage points

Austria

33.0

34.0

34.0

-1.0

0.0

Belgium

7.9

8.9

13.0

-5.1

-4.1

Bulgaria

18.2

18.0

16.0

2.2

2.0

Croatia

29.0

29.0

20.0

9.0

9.0

Cyprus

9.4

8.7

13.0

-3.6

-4.3

Czech Republic

15.1

15.4

13.0

2.1

2.4

Denmark

30.8

32.0

30.0

0.8

2.0

Estonia

28.6

27.9

25.0

3.6

2.9

Finland

39.3

39.7

38.0

1.3

1.7

France

15.2

15.6

23.0

-7.8

-7.4

Germany

14.6

14.7

18.0

-3.4

-3.3

Greece

15.4

15.7

18.0

-2.6

-2.3

Hungary

14.5

14.3

13.0

1.5

1.3

Ireland

9.2

9.2

16.0

-6.8

-6.8

Italy

17.5

17.2

17.0

0.5

0.2

Latvia

37.6

37.8

40.0

-2.4

-2.2

Lithuania

25.8

26.0

23.0

2.8

3.0

Luxembourg

5.0

5.2

11.0

-6.0

-5.8

Malta

5.0

5.9

10.0

-5.0

-4.1

Netherlands

5.8

5.8

14.0

-8.2

-8.2

Poland

11.8

11.5

15.0

-3.2

-3.5

Portugal

28.0

27.9

31.0

-3.0

-3.1

Romania

24.8

24.4

24.0

0.8

0.4

Slovakia

12.9

12.8

14.0

-1.1

-1.2

Slovenia

22.0

21.7

25.0

-3.0

-3.3

Spain

16.2

17.4

20.0

-3.8

-2.6

Sweden

53.9

54.2

49.0

4.9

5.2

United Kingdom

8.2

8.9

15.0

-6.8

-6.1

EU-28

16.7

16.9

20.0

-3.3

-3.1

 

 

 

 

 

Iceland

70.2

 

72.0

-1.8

 

Norway

69.4

 

68.0

1.4

 

Notes: A distance to trajectory is calculated as ‘RES share’ – ’RES target’. A positive value indicates a RES share higher than the relevant indicative trajectory.

RES, renewable energy source.

Sources: EEA, 2017k; EU, 2009d; Eurostat, 2017d.

Table A2.2 Current progress towards national action plan trajectories

Member State

RES shares

National action plan trajectory

 

Trajectory shares

Gaps to trajectory

 

2015

2016
(approximated)

2015

2016

2015

2016 (approximated)

 

%

 %

 %

 %

percentage points

percentage points

Austria

33.0

34.0

32.3

32.6

0.7

1.4

Belgium

7.9

8.9

7.5

8.6

0.4

0.3

Bulgaria

18.2

18.0

12.4

12.4

5.8

5.6

Croatia

29.0

29.0

17.5

18.1

11.5

10.9

Cyprus

9.4

8.7

9.0

9.7

0.4

-1.0

Czech Republic

15.1

15.4

12.0

12.4

3.1

3.0

Denmark

30.8

32.0

27.6

28.2

3.2

3.8

Estonia

28.6

27.9

23.6

23.7

5.0

4.2

Finland

39.3

39.7

32.6

33.6

6.7

6.1

France

15.2

15.6

17.0

18.0

-1.8

-2.4

Germany

14.6

14.7

13.5

14.4

1.1

0.3

Greece

15.4

15.7

11.4

12.4

4.0

3.3

Hungary

14.5

14.3

8.3

9.3

6.2

5.0

Ireland

9.2

9.2

10.3

10.7

1.1

-1.5

Italy

17.5

17.2

11.2

12.0

6.2

5.2

Latvia

37.6

37.8

35.6

36.3

2.0

1.5

Lithuania

25.8

26.0

21.0

22.0

4.8

4.0

Luxembourg

5.0

5.2

5.4

5.4

-0.4

-0.2

Malta

5.0

5.9

5.5

6.8

-0.5

-0.9

Netherlands

5.8

5.8

8.5

9.7

-2.7

-3.9

Poland

11.8

11.5

11.9

12.5

-0.1

-0.9

Portugal

28.0

27.9

28.4

28.9

-0.4

-1.0

Romania

24.8

24.4

20.1

20.6

4.7

3.8

Slovakia

12.9

12.8

10.0

10.0

2.9

2.8

Slovenia

22.0

21.7

21.2

21.8

0.8

-0.1

Spain

16.2

17.4

16.7

17.3

-0.5

0.1

Sweden

53.9

54.2

47.0

47.7

6.9

6.5

United Kingdom

8.2

8.9

7.0

8.0

1.2

0.9

EU-28

16.7

16.9

15.3

16.1

1.4

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iceland

70.2

 

66.0

67.3

4.2

 

Norway

69.4

 

64.0

0.0

5.4

 

Notes: The distance to a trajectory is calculated as ‘RES share’ – ’RES target’. A positive value indicates a RES share higher than the relevant anticipated trajectory from the NREAP.

RES, renewable energy source.

Sources: EC, 2013c; EEA, 2011, 2017k; Eurostat, 2017d.

Table A2.3 Renewable energy source (RES) shares per sector, 2015 and 2016 (2016 = preliminary estimate)

 

RES-E

RES-H/C

RES-T

Member State

2015

Proxy 2016

2015

Proxy 2016

2015

Proxy 2016

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

Austria

70.3

72.7

32.0

34.1

11.4

11.4

Belgium

15.4

17.1

7.6

7.9

3.8

5.8

Bulgaria

19.1

19.6

28.6

27.7

6.5

6.5

Croatia

45.4

45.1

38.6

37.8

3.5

3.8

Cyprus

8.4

8.4

22.5

21.7

2.5

2.2

Czech Republic

14.1

14.1

19.8

21.0

6.5

5.8

Denmark

51.3

52.9

39.6

41.8

6.7

7.0

Estonia

15.1

13.6

49.6

50.5

0.4

0.5

Finland

32.5

33.1

52.8

53.8

22.0

20.8

France

18.8

19.1

19.8

20.2

8.5

8.9

Germany

30.7

32.0

12.9

12.9

6.8

6.9

Greece

22.1

23.2

25.9

24.9

1.4

2.5

Hungary

7.3

7.4

21.3

21.0

6.2

6.3

Ireland

25.2

26.4

6.4

6.4

6.5

5.9

Italy

33.5

34.3

19.2

18.3

6.4

6.1

Latvia

52.2

52.7

51.8

53.1

3.9

3.8

Lithuania

15.5

17.9

46.1

47.9

4.6

3.5

Luxembourg

6.2

6.6

6.9

6.9

6.5

7.1

Malta

4.2

5.7

14.1

14.1

4.7

6.5

Netherlands

11.1

12.3

5.5

5.2

5.3

4.5

Poland

13.4

14.9

14.3

14.0

6.4

5.4

Portugal

52.6

52.1

33.4

34.2

7.4

6.2

Romania

43.2

40.4

25.9

26.2

5.5

5.5

Slovakia

22.7

22.6

10.8

10.9

8.5

8.2

Slovenia

32.7

33.0

34.1

34.7

2.2

2.1

Spain

36.9

36.9

16.8

17.5

1.7

5.2

Sweden

65.8

64.7

68.6

68.9

24.0

26.6

United Kingdom

22.4

24.6

5.5

6.2

4.4

4.5

EU-28

28.8

29.7

18.6

18.6

6.7

7.1

 

Note: RES-E: energy from renewable sources for electricity production; RES-H/C: energy from renewable sources for heating and cooling; RES-T: energy from renewable sources in the transport sector.

Sources: EEA, 2017k; Eurostat, 2017d.

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Progress towards energy efficiency targets: data and methodology
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