Other instruments

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Environmental policy instruments important for the establishment of protected areas in Europe.

Other instruments

The London Convention Relative to the Preservation of Fauna and Flora in their Natural State


This Convention had objectives to protect species of value as hunting trophies and to create protected areas in Africa. For the first time at international level the Convention provided a definition of national parks and nature reserves.

European Diploma of Protected Areas


This instrument of the Council of Europe is awarded to protected areas because of their outstanding scientific, cultural or aesthetic qualities; they must also be the subject of a suitable conservation scheme which may be combined with a sustainable development programme.

Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) *


UNESCO's MAB Programme is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme aiming to set a scientific basis for the improvement of the relationships between people and their environment globally, among which through the creation of Biosphere reserves.

European Network of Biogenetic Reserves *


The network of Biogenetic Reserves was started by the Council of Europe to encourage Member States to cooperate with a view to conserving representative examples of natural habitats that are especially valuable for nature conservation in Europe.

Global Geoparks Network *


The Geoparks initiative was launched by UNESCO in response to the perceived need for an international initiative that recognises sites representing an earth science interest. For the purpose, a new internationally recognised label 'UNESCO Geopark' was developed.

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Note: * Instruments marked with an asterisk lead to a specific designation of protected areas.

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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