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Probability of occurrence of whales in the Europe Seas

This raster dataset represents the probability of occurrence of whales in the Europe Seas, where the species included are: Blue whale, Sei whale, Humpback whale, Sperm whale, Fin whale and Northern right whale.

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Risk of collision with whales in Europe Seas

This raster dataset represents risk of collision of whales with vessels in the Europe Seas. Species included are: Blue whale, Sei whale, Humpback whale, Sperm whale, Fin whale and Northern right whale. The northern right whale model only describes the range of the western population of this species, since the eastern population is probably almost extinct. Thus, the northern right whale model only partly overlaps with the EEA area on interest.

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Water use in the upstream supply chain of EU-27 household consumption domains, million m³ (blue) water, 2020

To produce and handle all clothing, footwear and household textiles purchased by EU-27 households in 2020, an estimated 4024 million m³ of blue water was used (9m³ per person), making this consumption domain the third highest impact category after food and recreation. Only 12% of blue water consumption takes place within Europe.

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Water scarcity conditions as measured using the water exploitation index plus (WEI+), by country, 2017

WEI+ illustrates the percentage of water use against renewable freshwater resources in a given time and place

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Urban Waste Water Treatment map

The urban waste water treatment map shows the most recently reported information on the implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD). It is based on data from 2020 in EU-27 (2020) countries plus Iceland, which were reported by countries in 2022. Data are provisional, pending compliance assessment by the European Commission.

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WISE WFD protected area spatial data sets

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) protected area data sets include information about European drinking water protected areas, designated waters such as fish protected areas and shellfish protected areas, nitrates vulnerable zones, urban waste water sensitive areas and bathing water protected areas. The protected areas are part of the Water Framework Directive register of protected areas and were reported in second River Basin Management Plans (RBMP) or under other related reporting obligations. The data sets are part of the Water Information System for Europe (WISE), and compile information reported by the EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, Switzerland and the United Kingdom to the European Commission (EC) and the European Environment Agency (EEA).

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Recorded hydropower plants in Europe

The figure shows the number of existing, under construction and planned hydropower plants by size categories (installed megaWatts) in Europe.

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Man-made river barriers in Europe included in the AMBER Atlas

The figure shows a compilation of 630,000 unique barrier records from existing datasets.

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 Oil spills detected in 2019 and confirmed as mineral oil or as other substance

The map shows the mineral oil and other substance detections confirmed by CleanSeaNet users in 2019 as inserted into the system by 07 Januray 2020

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Shipping Density map in the Baltic region and ambient noise including both natural and anthropogenic components of underwater noise

The left map shows the ship density of the Baltic Sea based on AIS and VMS data. The colour scale is presented in log10 for clarity. The data is for the whole year of 2014 and includes all categories of ships. The right map shows the median value of the sound pressure level for the 125 Hz 1/3-octave band. Elevated sound pressure levels are noted in the red areas where the shipping density is high. The sound pressure level was determined as an average over the entire water column.

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Ecological status of surface waters in Europe

The Water Framework Directive aims to achieve good status for all rivers, lakes and transitional and coastal waters in the EU. Achieving good ecological status for surface waters is critical to this. According to countries’ second river basin management plans, good ecological status had been achieved for around 40% of surface waters (rivers, lakes and transitional and coastal waters) by 2015. However, these plans show only limited improvement in ecological status since the first plans were published in 2009, with ecological status remaining similar for most water bodies.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification

09 Aug 2021

Ocean surface pH declined from 8.2 to below 8.1 over the industrial era as a result of an increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. This decline corresponds to an increase in oceanic acidity of about 30%. Reductions in surface water pH are observed across the global ocean. Ocean acidification has impacts on marine organisms and has already affected the deep ocean, particularly at high latitudes. Models project further ocean acidification worldwide. The target under United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14.3 is to minimise the impacts of this by 2030.

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Percentage of water bodies not in good ecological status or potential, per river basic district

The map presents the proportion of surface water bodies (rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters) in less than good ecological status per River Basin District.

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European sea surface temperature

All European seas have warmed considerably since 1870, particularly since the late 1970s. During the period for which comprehensive data are available (1981-2018), sea surface temperature increased by between 0.2 °C, in the North Atlantic, and 0.5 °C, in the Black Sea, per decade. This increase is projected to continue, although more slowly than that of air temperature over land. The frequency and magnitude of marine heatwaves has also increased significantly globally and in European seas and is projected to continue, with increasing impacts on ecosystems and climate expected.

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Industrial pollutant releases to water in Europe

Between 2010 and 2019, industrial releases to Europe’s water bodies of pollutants that are damaging to human health and the environment declined overall. Releases of heavy metals declined significantly, while emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause eutrophication, declined to a lesser extent. In the same period, the economic value of industry increased by 14%, in line with the EU policy objective of supporting industrial growth while decreasing industrial emissions. However, data gaps make it difficult to assess industry’s contribution to overall water pollution in Europe.

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Projected change in 10-year river water deficit between the present (1981-2010) and the end of the 21st century (2071-2100) in Europe, under two emissions scenarios

These maps show the relative change in 10-year river water deficit under the 95th percentile for two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5)

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Marine Protected Areas (MPA) assessment areas

The spatial extent of the MPA assessment areas was defined as the marine waters surrounding the EU countries whose outer limit is defined by the 200 NM boundary from the coast (possibly coinciding with formally recognised EEZ boundaries) or the equidistance (in cases of opposite neighbouring EU countries), or by the presence of a boundary defined by an agreed treaty. Given no formal boundary of this map exists and since this limit coincides with the boundary of the maritime area (water column) submitted by EU Member States under MSFD, this new version (version 2.0) of this dataset is based on a MSFD Region/Subregion boundary shapefile assembled in 2020 by ETC/ICM harmonised with the Coastline and European Seas layers. This dataset has been used to create the MPA buffer zones (version 2) and to show the percentage of marine protected area (MPA) coverage in Europe's regional seas.

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