External costs by country aggregated over all pollutants (2021) and External costs by country aggregated over all pollutants and normalised against GDP (2021)

Figure Created 11 Dec 2023 Last modified 11 Dec 2023
1 min read
Through a scientific methodology called the "Impact Pathway Approach", it is possible to calculate the external costs of industrial air pollution, by modelling how pollutants travel and are transformed in the atmosphere, the exposure population and the environment may have, how this exposure leads to an impact, and the economic value of such impacts. Such calculation uses: Marginal cost per tonne of various pollutants and emissions reported by large industrial operators to E-PRTR. In the figure, one can see these external costs estimated for 2021, organised by the countries where these facilities are. The part on the left represents the absolute costs. Considering that the top countries are also those with the largest number of facilities and the largest facilities, the graph on the right shows a normalisation of the costs using the ratio between EUR costs and EUR GDP.

European data


Additional information

Mortality valued using the value of a life year (VOLY) and the Value of Statistical Life (VSL)
Euro price base: 2021
Data gaps: Czechia, Malta, Lithuania, and Slovakia (No data reported for 2021)
Source: EEA and ETC-HE externalities work during 2022 and 2023.


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage


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