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Urban adaptation in Europe

EEA assessment report presenting the status quo of adaptation to climate change at the local government level, with particular focus on cities. The assessment presents the overview of climate risks to cities, types of adaptation responses, extent of adaptation planning and actions at the loal level in Europe and opportunities to scale up and speed up implementation of adaptation to climate change at the local level.

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Monitoring and evaluation of national adaptation policies throughout the policy cycle

The Global Goal on Adaptation aims to enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change. Given the impact of climate-related hazards, the question is not whether adaptation is necessary, but what are the adaptation options to increase resilience.

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Climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector in Europe

Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways. Changes in temperature and precipitation as well as weather and climate extremes are already influencing crop yields and livestock productivity in Europe. Weather and climate conditions also affect the availability of water needed for irrigation, livestock watering practices, processing of agricultural products, and transport and storage conditions. Climate change is projected to reduce crop productivity in parts of southern Europe and to improve the conditions for growing crops in northern Europe. Although northern regions may experience longer growing seasons and more suitable crop conditions in future, the number of extreme events negatively affecting agriculture in Europe is projected to increase.

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Adaptation challenges and opportunities for the European energy system

Building a climate‑resilient low‑carbon energy system

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Addressing climate change adaptation in transnational regions in Europe

Europe’s border regions and maritime areas, like its Arctic and the Mediterranean regions, are facing negative impacts due to climate change. Countries responsible for these transnational areas are already taking action to adapt to changes in weather and climate extreme events (e.g. increased heat waves or heavy rainfalls). This briefing gives an up-to-date overview of how European countries are working together to adapt to climate change impacts in these shared regions, some of which are considered climate change ‘hot spots’ because they are most vulnerable to dramatic changes.

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Sharing adaptation information across Europe

This report provides an evaluation on how the growing knowledge on adaptation in Europe has been captured and how it is presented on the web-based European Climate Adaptation Platform (Climate-ADAPT) and shared across Europe.

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National climate change vulnerability and risk assessments in Europe 2018

This report provides the first systematic review of national climate change impact, vulnerability and risk assessments across Europe. It is based on information about relevant multi-sectoral assessments reported from EEA member countries. The purpose of the report is to share experiences and knowledge and to highlight approaches and practical solutions that countries have used to produce and present their assessments.

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Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Europe

Enhancing coherence of the knowledge base, policies and practices. The report assesses current practices and level of know-how, and highlights emerging innovative tools national, regional and local authorities are using to tackle the impacts of weather- and climate-related hazards.

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Financing Europe’s low carbon, climate resilient future

The orderly transition to the low carbon, climate-resilient economy that Europe is aiming for is also an investment challenge that depends on a substantial redirection of finance flows towards more sustainable investments. Meeting this challenge and harvesting the associated opportunities requires an improved knowledge base in terms of clear investment information at EU and national levels. Assessing the state-of-play of climate finance tracking in Europe, a recent European Environment Agency (EEA) study indicates that few European countries have translated their national climate and energy objectives into corresponding investment needs and plans.

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The Arctic Environment

This European Environment Agency (EEA) report contributes to the growing international discourse on the Arctic region. It is both timely and important, since it examines the increasingly rapid changes that are taking place in the Arctic from a European perspective. It considers the national, regional and global challenges and opportunities that are emerging as a result

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Financing urban adaptation to climate change

This report shows that, although cities and municipalities across Europe increasingly acknowledge the need to adapt to climate change, meeting the costs of measures for adaptation remains very often a major challenge. Nevertheless, the report presents examples of several cities and municipalities that have found innovative ways of financing adaptation and implementing measures. These range from classic funds to more innovative financing mechanisms, including crowdfunding and green bonds. These solutions could be relevant for other cities, towns and smaller municipalities, and the examples are meant as an inspiration to learn from.

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Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016

This report is an indicator-based assessment of past and projected climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society. It also looks at society’s vulnerability to these impacts and at the development of adaptation policies and the underlying knowledge base. This is the fourth ‘Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe’ report, which is published every four years. This edition aims to support the implementation and review process of the 2013 EU Adaptation Strategy, which is foreseen for 2018, and the development of national and transnational adaptation strategies and plans.

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Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe 2016 — Transforming cities in a changing climate

This report builds on and complements existing products and initiatives on urban adaptation in Europe. It focuses on the state of actions in the field and progress achieved since the first EEA report in 2012, and it considers this analysis in relation to current challenges: Do existing actions lead to attractive, climate-resilient cities and if not, what needs to be changed? The report aims to broaden perspectives and provide input to a review and subsequent adjustment of urban adaptation to climate change by local governments and by supporting regional, national and European institutions, researchers and other relevant stakeholders.

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National monitoring, reporting and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe

This report provides new insights into adaptation monitoring, reporting and evaluation systems at the national level in Europe and constitutes the first attempt to consolidate emerging information across European countries. It aims to offer reliable and targeted information to support the effective and efficient implementation of climate adaptation policies and actions at the national level in Europe.

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EEA Signals 2015 - Living in a changing climate

Signals 2015 focuses on climate change: Our climate is changing. Global average temperatures are increasing, sea levels are rising, precipitation patterns are changing, and extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and severe. In a series of short articles and interviews, Signals 2015 presents an overview of what causes climate change and what climate change means for human health, the environment, and the economy.

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Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe

As adaptation policy progresses in Europe, it is increasingly important, that people have access to relevant and high quality information. A broad range of users consider web-based adaptation platforms an effective means of collecting and sharing experiences and knowledge to interested stakeholders including policymakers, practioners and the general public. The report provides an overview on the state of play of most adaptation platform in Europe including 14 national adaptation platforms. It offers information on the scope, history, targeted users, the selection and presentation of knowledge, the links to other topics, scales and platforms as well as the monitoring and evaluation of the platforms. It also analyses existing and potential links of the platforms to climate services and Disaster risk reduction (DRR) platforms.

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Global megatrend update 9: Increasingly severe consequences of climate change

In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment's state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA updated each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately. In mid-2015 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report.

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Adaptation of transport to climate change in Europe

Challenges and options across transport modes and stakeholders. This report explores current climate change adaptation practices concerning transport across European countries. It provides an overview on the challenges and state adaptation action, a review of a number of initiatives in different countries, and conclusions on a potential way forward. Its purpose is to stimulate discussions among the many different stakeholders concerned with transport adaptation. Opening the perspective on the transport system and sector as a whole should inspire and encourage learning from practices across modes and areas of responsibility and support efforts to mainstream adaptation within transport-related policy and practices. The factual information collected is based on data available in the Climate-ADAPT information platform, a literature review, case studies provided by many stakeholders, and a questionnaire on transport and adaptation addressed to EEA member countries in 2013.

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National adaptation policy processes in European countries — 2014

This report draws on the results of a self-assessment survey conducted on national adaptation policy processes in Europe. In May 2013, the survey was sent out by the European Environment Agency (EEA) to authorities in countries responsible for coordinating adaptation at national level (the EEA 32 member countries, and in Croatia in July 2013 as a new EU Member State and EEA member country). Some 30 EEA member countries provided their responses on a voluntary basis. Thanks to the high response rate and the wealth of information provided by these European countries, this report presents a unique collection of information and the largest and most comprehensive overview of national adaptation policy processes in Europe, to date.

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Adaptation in Europe - Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments

This report provides policymakers across Europe, at different levels of governance and stages of policy formulation, with information that can be used to support adaptation planning and implementation. Specific parts of the report are therefore targeted at different audiences.

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