5EAP 5th Environmental Action Programme
A All Länder of Germany
ADEME Agence de l'environnement et de la maîtrise de l'energie, France
AFNOR French standard on the design of vehicles to optimise their recycling/re-use at end of life
AIJ/JI Activities implemented jointly/Joint Implementation
AIP Associação Industrial Portuguesa, Association of Portuguese Industries
BAU Business as Usual
BDI Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie, Federal Association of German Industry
BDZ Bundesverband der Deutschen Ziegelindustrie, Federal Association of German Cement Industry
BGW Bundesverband der deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft, Federal Association of German Gas and Water Utilities
BMW Bayerische Motorenwerke (car manufacturer), Munich/Germany
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
CAIMA Small Portuguese pulp paper producing company
CEC Commission of the European Communities
CEFIC European Confederation of Chemical Industry
CELPA Sector da Pasta de Papel, Portuguese pulp paper association
CEP Company Environmental Plan, Netherlands
CEPA Consolidated Environmental Protection Act, Denmark
CFC Chlorinated Flour-Carbons
CFF Compagnie Française de la Feraille, French Company operating many shredder sites.
CGS Centre de Gestion Scientifique, Unit in ‘Ecole de Mines’, Paris/France
CIRED Centre International de Recherche sur l’Environnement et le Développement, International Centre for Research on Environment and Development, France
CNPA Conseil National des Professions de l’Automobile, association of car dismantlers, France
CO Carbon monoxide
CO2 Carbon dioxide
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
COP Conference of the Parties
D Germany
DCMR Association of Provinces, Netherlands
DG Directorate General (of the European Commission)
DGA Direcção-Geral Do Ambiente, Portuguese Environment Ministry
DGI Direcção Geral Da Indústria, Portuguese Industry Ministry
DHS Dansk Handel Service, Danish Trade Service
DIW Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (German Institute for Economics Research)
DK Denmark
DOE Department of Environment, (here: Ireland)
DRIRE Regional environmental regulator, France
DSD Duales System Deutschland
DSM Demand side management
EA Environmental Agreement
EC European Commission
ECU European Currency Unit
EEA European Environment Agency
EEB European Environmental Bureau
EIONET European Environment Information and Observation Network
ELV End-of-Life Vehicles
EM Environmental Management Act, Netherlands
EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing System
EMS Environmental Management System, Netherlands
en. Energy
EP European Parliament
EPA Environmental Protection Agency, here: Sweden, Denmark
EPS Expanded polystyrene
ERM Environmental Resource Management, British Consultant
est. estimated
ETUC European Trade Union Confederation
EU European Union
EURELECTRIC Grouping of the Electricity Supply Industry
FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change
FEDEREC Fédération Française de la Récupération pour la Gestion Industrielle de l’Environnement et du Recyclage, French Recovery Federation for Industrial Management of the Environment and Recycling
FGD Flue Gas Desulphurisation
FO Consultative Group for the Chemical Industry, Netherlands
FoE Friends of the Earth, environmental NGO, here: Sweden
FR France
FRF French Francs
GHG Greenhouse gas
H2S Hydrogen Sulphide
HDPE High-density polyethylene
ICCA International Council of Chemicals Associations
IEA International Energy Agency, Paris/France
IETP Integrated Environmental Target Plan, Netherlands
ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Institute for Economics Research, Munich/Germany
IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention Control
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
ITOT International Environment Technology Transfer Centre, Leipzig/Germany
KL Kommunernres Landsforening, National Association of Local Authorities, Denmark
KPMG International Consultant Group
LDPE Low-density polyethylene
MEP Member of Parliament
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
MWV Mineralölwirtschaftsverband, Oil Refining Industry, Germany
MYA Multi-year agreement
N New Länder, former part of East-Germany
NEPP National Environmental Policy Plan, Netherlands
NFP National Focal Point (of the EEA)
NFR Swedish Packaging Council
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation (here mainly used for environmental ones)
NL Netherlands
NM3 normal cubic meter
NOx Nitrogen oxides
O Old Länder, former part of West-Germany
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris
P Portugal
P&P Pulp Paper
PAH Polycyclic (or polynuclear) aromatic hydrocarbons
PARCOM Convention for the Prevention of Maritime Pollution from Land Based Sources (Paris Convention)
PCB Polychlorobiphenyls
PEDIP Specific Programme for Development of Portuguese Industry
Perf. Performance
Pers. Comm. Personal Communication
PET Polyethylene terephthalate
PORTARIA Portuguese law on water/effluent and air emissions of pulp paper industry
PORTUCEL Large Portuguese pulp paper producing company
PP Polypropylene
prod. Production
PRTR Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
PSA French car company with the two constituent companies Peugeot and Citroën
PTE Portuguese Escudos
PVC Polyvinylchlorine
PWS Priority Waste Streams
R&D Research and Development
red’n Reduction
Ref. Reference
REPA Reparegistret, Swedish Packaging Collection Scheme
RES Renewable Energy Sources
RUE Rational Use of Energy
RWE Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektriztitätswerk, Utility company, Germany
RWI Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Rhine-Westphalian Economics Research Institute, Germany
S Sweden/Sulphur
SEARN Secretarias de Estado do Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais
SEI Secretarias de Estado da Industria
SEK Swedish Crones
SME Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
SNM Stichting Natuur en Milieu, Dutch Environmental NGO
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SOPORCEL Large Portuguese pulp paper producing company
sp. Specific
SPMP Syndicat des Producteurs de Matières Plastiques, Association of plastic manufacturers, France
STORA Medium Portuguese pulp paper producing company
TEU Treaty on European Union
tot. total
TSS Total Suspended Solids
UK United Kingdom
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNICE Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederation of Europe
VA Voluntary Agreements
VCI Verband der Chemischen Industrie, Association of Chemical Industry, Germany
VDEW Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitätswerke, Association of German electricity supply companies
VDZ Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, Association of German cement companies
VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft, Federation of Industrial Energy Consumer and Self-Producers, Germany
VKU Verband kommunaler Unternehmen, Association of Municipal Enterprises, Germany
VNCI Dutch Chemical Industries Associations
VNONCW Confederation of the Netherlands’ Industry and Employers
VROM Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment
WWT Waste Water Treatment
yr year
ZEW Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung, Centre for European Economics Research, Mannheim/Germany
ZVEI Zentralverband der Elektro-Industrie, Association of the Household Appliances Industries, Germany


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