4. Short Term Considerations of a Revised System for CORINAIR 94

The Chapter 4 presents a proposal for CORINAIR 94 inventory corresponding to short term needs. This proposal is a pragmatical approach compatible with time schedule of ETC/AEM.

The differences between the CORINAIR 90 system and the data model described in the third section of this document are :

  • implementation of energy balances (EB)
  • introduction of a national aggregated data level (NAD)
  • compatibility with international requests (e.g. IPCC, ...) with potential outputs
  • software improvement for facilitating inventory achievement (e.g. default emission factors, ...)

4.1 Software development

Priorities must be defined in order to provide to national experts an operating tool by the end of 1995 as planned. Supplementary short term improvement development could take place on first part of 1996.

Then the tasks that are in term of priority essential relate to first priority tasks (priority A) to be absolutely developed by end 1995, and the tasks that are desirable/useful relate to second priority tasks (priority B) to be developed by end 1995 as far as possible or during the first part of 1996.


4.1.1 Methodological plan

Due to a relatively short delay for providing the revised system for CORINAIR 94 and due to priorities, some important issues cannot take place in short term development ; it is the case of :

  • Only one single data dictionary as well for the centralized EEA UNIX/ORACLE database than for the national individual PC/DOS databases.

That would avoid to have two data dictionaries for the same data and would avoid therefore the need of a specific transfer process from one to the other ; but it would require an important amount of work (structure and data management to review) which can be carried out simultaneously with other developments such as full windows version.

  • Extension of the concept relating to emission generating activities (e.g. ACCOR approach or equivalent).

It would enable to manage as well the economic aspect as technology aspects (useful for projection needs for example).

Such a modification needs first further methodological developments especially concerning harmonization and completion of the UNECE/CORINAIR Guidebook. So, it is recommended in this short development, to mainly adapt/extend the existing CORINAIR 90 System to meet the new identified needs described in section 2 and to converge to the data model proposed for longer term (cf. figures 4 and 5, sections and 4.2.2).

In a modular approach (which presents generally many advantages), the existing CORINAIR 90 system is to be identified as the main module of the revised system '94 (corresponding to NDAS, LPSD and SDI elements).

Then two new modules have to be developed :

  • the energy balance module (including energy statistics input as reference),
  • the NAD (national aggregated data) module for national annual needs (cf section


4.1.2 Windows consideration

Some CORINAIR experts have expressed the wish to work with a WINDOWS version of CORINAIR software. Due to the powerful WINDOWS environment compared to the basic DOS environment, for longer term a full WINDOWS version of the air emission system is to be considered. But in the short term view, it is not an essential priority, taken into account that this task would represent an urge development which could be made in the same time as other long term options of development.

So the main module will remain on DOS version for its adaptation/extension but (advantage of modular approach) the two new EB and NAD modules can be developed directly on WINDOWS version without additional or duplicate efforts. This proposal requires that all the national experts who wish to fully use the revised 94' system, have WINDOWS available on their PC.

Then the revised 94' system will be a package of three modules to be included in a WINDOWS group as "CORINAIR/EUROPEAN AIR EMISSION SYSTEM". The main DOS module (NDAS/LPSD/SDI), and two new WINDOWS modules.

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In longer term, the main DOS module should move to WINDOWS modules (cf above longer term options).

4.1.3 Tasks on inventory specifications [priority A]

  • the new requested pollutants (heavy metals, POPs) have to be managed in the revised system. That means the need to complete/modify the SNAP 90 to take into account the new pollutants (cf annex 1).
  • a best compatibility with IPCC requires to adjust the SNAP 90 (cf annex 1).


4.1.4 Tasks on data model [priority A]

The first priority is to provide a system which may satisfy the different international requests on air emission inventory in due time. For that, the revised system for CORINAIR 94 have to be organized closely as the general model presented in chapter 3 (cf figure 4) which optimizes the tailored process for the different possible needs.

Practically, the CORINAIR 90 system already includes the following elements : SDI, NDAS and LPSD (cf figure 4 and chapter 3).

The basic new elements to be introduced are :

  • the energy balance module (EB).
  • the aggregated national level (NAD) (aggregated data instead of area source data and LPS data), and the NAF function (national aggregation function which enables to build the NAD from the detailed inventory). NAD Module

The National Aggregated Data module is output oriented to be tailored to the annual national timely needs.

This module may be used as well as input module or/and a module of output data from aggregation of the more detailed and accurate NDAS and LPSD data (cf sections 3.6.1 and 3.6.2).

The aggregation function (NAF) has to be considered as an import procedure to be developed in the main CORINAIR module.

For revised 94' system, the level of aggregation of source categories must allow the compatibility with the recognized national needs: PARCOM/HELCOM, UNECE, IPCC, EU CO2.

To be able to satisfy all these needs, it is recommended to choose as source categories for the NAD module relevant combinations of SNAP activities with fuel types (NAPFUE). More precisely the NAD module aggregates :

  • in one hand, two different types of sources (AS and LPS),
  • in the other hand, rubrics (generally) and specific fuels. For flexibility consideration and other potential needs, the rubric may be possibly not aggregated.

To be able to satisfy economic aspect needs (e.g. projection purposes, results of emissions per economic sectors ...) as well as energy balance needs, the NAD module have to include a list of economic sectors (based on EUROSTAT statistics) and distribution of source activities into these economic sectors (cf list of economic sectors in annex 5).

For speeding up provisional national annual inventory, it is recommended to include in the NAD module a facility function : an EB extrapolation function which enable to extrapolate from NAD year (N-1) to NAD year (N) by the use of energy statistics in EB year (N). This extrapolation relates only to activity rates and energy consumption activities. EB Module (cf section 3.6.1)

This energy balance module is verification/validation oriented. It gives the possibility to make the balance with national energy consumption by fuels and at least by main economic sectors defined in international energy statistics (e.g. EUROSTAT) :

  • by fuel and by economic sectors,
  • by fuel for all economic sectors as a whole,
  • by economic sector for all fuels together,
  • for total energy consumption (all fuels and sectors as a whole).

It is recommended to make the balance with the NAD module only, because it is pragmatically and theoretically sufficient. Other energy balance extensions could be introduced in longer term.  Data dictionary and platform aspects for the new modules

It is proposed to develop, these two new modules for PC/WINDOWS environment with dbase format table to have direct table compatibility with the existing main module (N.B. : nowadays difference of database formats is no longer a real problem due to the availability of ODBC drivers).

Concerning data dictionary aspect for NAD module :

  • some tables are common with the main CORINAIR module (SNAP, RUBRIC, NAPFUE).
  • the others tables are specific to this new module :

- comments
- definition of emitting source categories (activities)
- activity rates
- emission factors and emissions.

Concerning data dictionary aspect for EB module, the specific tables relate to the storage of the national energy consumption at different level of split defined in section 4.1.4.

Additional tables will be necessary to take into account, in the balance, the fuel consumption from industrial processes relating to non-energy use .


4.1.5 Tasks on the existing main module Priority A

The existing CORINAIR 90 System represents the main module of the revised 94'system (corresponding to NDAS, LPSD and SDI elements). It needs to be adapted/improved to fit the general data model and to satisfy new needs. Practically, such an adaptation/improvement represents a simple extension or light modifications in term of data dictionary. They are :

  • Additional function to fit the general data model : NAF - national aggregation function. This new function is to be considered as an export function from this main module into the NAD module. It requires, for performing a fully successful exportation, that all relevant data are available in the NDAS and LPSD components (e.g. the fuel consumption and fuel emission factors for the LPS data).
  • Inclusion, as far as possible, of default emission factors from UNECE guidebook for speed-up the inventory achievement. In term of data dictionary, it requires one additional table to store the guidebook emission factors (values or range of values).
  • Improvements of data handling/input facilities:
  • Call of default emission factors when available
  • Bottom-up function (BUF) to aggregate spatially data. This function represents a complementary function to the existing top-down function (allocation function with surrogate data). It enables to speed-up the spatial inventory (SDI) and to avoid inconsistency between NUTS levels (cf. section 3.6.1).
  • Improvements pointed out from CORINAIR 90 questionnaire and, more widely, to suggestions and comments from experts :

* Additional field in LPS identification table to flag whether the point source is under LPS CORINAIR criteria or not. That enables to store and sort point sources for other needs than EMEP need, keeping the possibility to identify specifically EMEP point sources.

* Edition of aggregated emission results without need of an intermediate "data build/emission calculation" step (direct query).

* Compatibility with share configuration. Priority B

Other improvements should be introduced :

  • Error messages and checking messages to be optimized.
  • Backup/restore option to improve (with possible use of compression process).
  • Alternate data entry screen (option of tabular entry screen as alternative to existing form type entry screen).
  • Improvements for data editions/reports.
  • Other miscellaneous improvements.


4.1.6  Tasks on output facilities (priority B)

One main requirement for the revised system is to build the European air emission inventory system being able to satisfy all possible needs (international needs and more specific needs). Such needs could be more quickly and efficiently performed with specific outputs developed around the system :

  • First it is to be noticed that the outputs do not belong to the data model of the air emission system itself.
  • Are the outputs to be developed by the users or centrally ? In any case, for identified international output needs, it is recommended that the EEA ETC/AEM provides facilities for such outputs.
  • Then, a second question arises : where output developments have to be available ? At national individual CORINAIR System level or at centralized EEA database level ? This question would need feedback from national experts. But, on principle, at least the outputs which are necessary or quite useful to the responsible national expert should be available, as far as possible, at the national CORINAIR database level. Finally, to avoid duplicate efforts, some output developments may be available only at national CORINAIR level and some others may be available only at EEA centralized level ; some output developments may also be done at both levels because necessary or useful at these two levels.

It is not the aim of this report to clearly share the output developments between the two levels (since output possibilities do not belong formally to the database of the system).

Nevertheless, in the frame of software development and as extended features, some output facilities, at national database level, may be considered, such as outputs for :

  • IPCC
  • EU-CO2
  • LCPD

As for the new modules NAD and EB, these outputs may be developed directly for WINDOWS as separate modules.

Then the final package to be installed on WINDOWS will be extended with these output modules.

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4.1.7 Summary

Tasks for CORINAIR 94 revised system

Priority A (by end 1995)

- specifications for CORINAIR 94
- EB WINDOWS module
- NAD WINDOWS module
- Adaptation/improvements in main DOS module (NDSA/LPSD/SDI) :
. NAF (national aggregation functions)
. inclusion of default emission factors
. bottom-up function
. share configuration compatibility
. other miscellaneous improvements

Priority B (during first part of 1996)

- Improvements in main DOS module (NADS/LPSD/SDI) :
. Error and checking messages optimization
. Improvement of Backup/Restore option
. Alternate data entry screen
. Improvements for data editions
. Other miscellaneous improvements.

- Reporting facilities with output WINDOWS modules :
. EU - CO2

The main benefits of the proposed revision for CORINAIR 94 is the fact the revised system will be able to satisfy the detailed spatial inventory and also the annual needs within a single coherent system ; and that can be done with a maximum compatibility with CORINAIR 90 data model (structural extension rather than actual structural modifications of CORINAIR 90 data model).

Another not negligible benefit of this short term proposal is to avoid serious revision of national transfer procedures which have been developed by some countries to transfer their specific national inventories into the CORINAIR 90 format.

At last, because of the compatibility with CORINAIR 90 data model, it is possible to propose with the revised system an updating procedure for using the 90' data as basis for 94' inventory. Nevertheless, due to some revisions of the SNAP and rubric approach, some additional information will be needed (e.g. residential, commercial and institutional sectors split in two different sectors).

The main issues for the revised system 94' are taken into account :

  • management of different stages in inventory achievement for satisfying annual needs, and spatial needs.
  • convergence process between the different inventory stages and energy balance for a coherent system.
  • facilities to speed-up the inventory achievement.

4.2  Specifications

4.2.1  Pollutants

It is suggested to consider for the next CORINAIR 94 inventory all the pollutants in turn for international requests listed in section 3.1 excepted HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for which clear and complete data guidelines are not yet available.

All pollutants will be considered "at source" conditions.

  • 8 pollutants already covered in CORINAIR 90
    SOx = SO2 + SO3 as SO2
    NOx = NO + NO2 as NO2
    NMVOC = all volatile organic compounds except CH4 as rough VOC
    (definition of volatile should be completed)
    CH4 as CH4
    CO as CO
    CO2 as ultimate CO2 (format requested at international and European levels)
    N2O as N2O
    NH3 as NH3
  • Heavy metals
    As : Arsenic and derived solid or gaseous compounds as As
    Cd : Cadmium and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Cd
    Cr : Chromium and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Cr
    Cu : Copper and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Cu
    Hg : Mercury and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Hg
    Ni : Nickel and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Ni
    Pb : Lead and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Pb
    Se : Selenium and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Se
    Zn : Zinc and derived solid or gaseous compounds as Zn
  • Persistent organic pollutants (*)
    HCH hexachlorocychlohexane as HCH
    PCP pentachlorophenol as PCP
    HCB hexachlorobenzene as HCB
    TCM tetrachloromethane as TCM
    TRI trichloroethylene as TRI
    PER tetrachloroethylene as PER
    TCB trichlorobenzene as TCB
    TCE trichloroethane as TCE
    DIOX dioxins and furans as Teq
    PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as total PAH


4.2.2 - Source sector split

A nomenclature such as ACCOR needs to be developed and refined with a large concertation between experts of different fields (air, economy, industry, ...).

Due to deadline for CORINAIR 94 it is proposed to refine only CORINAIR 90 nomenclatures (SNAP and NAPFUE) (**) with the following goals :

  • to introduce supplementary activities because of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants described in section 4.2.1.
  • to adapt or to add some items for better compatibility with IPCC format.
  • to update these nomenclatures according to suggestions from CORINAIR experts (addition, modification, deletion).
  • to consider a more systematic approach for the use of "rubric" (currently a mixture of economical sector and technology). Economical sectors will be considered separately outside of rubric and technology will be more normalized.

Concerning the rubric, a predefined set of possible technology split will have to be prepared on the basis of what have been used in different national CORINAIR 90 inventories. It will be possible for experts to add supplementary items when necessary.

Concerning the economic aspect, for short term, it is recommended to have the possibility to link, in the NAD module, any emitting activity (SNAP x FUEL x RUBRIC) with economic sectors. That enable to be compatible with the long term consideration (see section 3.2).

The new SNAP (Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) will be so called SNAP 94. It includes always three levels. The first level is constituted of 11 groups harmonized with UNECE source sectors.

The draft of SNAP 94 is presented in annex 1. It should be circulated to all experts for comments.

Similarly the updated NAPFUE (Nomenclature for Air Pollution of FUELS) will be so called NAPFUE 94. It is presented in annex 2.


4.2.3  Large Point Sources

Large Point Sources are defined according to arbitrary criteria allowing to select main individual emitters.

These criteria are based on :

  • Large Combustion Plant Directive request
  • EMEP requests
  • needs for quality of inventories.

Practically, these criteria are classified as follows :

  • criteria independent of emissions (thermal capacity, type of activity, size of installation, ... or a mixture of some of them)
  • criteria dependent of emissions (plant emitting more than a quantity X of a pollutant Y).

From the experience of CORINAIR 90, only few modifications are proposed.

The LPS specifications are listed in annex 3.


4.2.4 Territorial units

As planned, with the different steps defined by ETC/AEM the inventory will be performed as well for national level as for sub national spatially disaggregated levels.

The four levels breakdown will be maintained. It is based on NUTS classification (Nomenclature of statistical Territorial Units) defined by Eurostat.

  • Level O Country level
  • Level I, II, III Regional levels ; some levels do not exist in some countries.

The annex 4 provides the NUTS nomenclatures updated March 1992 (EC-12) and May 1993 (other countries). When not yet existing the NUTS nomenclature has been replaced with the nomenclature of territorial units defined by national experts for CORINAIR 90.

There is possible slight differences between this NUTS version and the reality. So, please check its relevancy. Eurostat is preparing a new NUTS version for EU-15.


4.2.5 Time resolution

CORINAIR 94 should represent the first element of a continuous time series based on a yearly emission inventory.

All data will be reported on the full year 1994 without distinction of finest temporal resolution.

Nevertheless, some sources (e.g. road traffic, biogenic emissions, ...) consider some time related data (e.g. monthly temperature, biomass factors, ...).


4.2.6 Energy balance

National energy data used as reference will be provided with the format available in international organizations such as EUROSTAT.

Therefore, energy data should be provided accordingly with one of the fuel split presented in annex 2, and with economical sector split which will differentiate at least :

  • Energy transformation and distribution
  • Industry
  • Transports
  • Commercial/Institutional/Residential
  • Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing
  • Other.

More detailed energy data will be input in NAD module and other modules (NDAS and LPSD) ;

NDAS and LPSD > NAD > EB in term of detail level of information

When considering energy related activities for which estimations of emissions are not based on energy consumption (e.g. based on production) a supplementary information is requested at national level :

  • ratios amount of energy/activity unit
  • fuel split contribution.

The energy balance module will treat the relevant information and will provide balances according to the detail defined in EB. Feed back adjustments will be probably necessary in NAD to get well balanced energy consumption.

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