Hellenic Centre for Marine Research DataBase (dataset URL is not available)

External Data Spec Published 07 May 2012
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HCMR DataBase

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Indicators using this data

Pathways of introduction of marine non-indigenous species to European seas This indicator describes the processes (pathways) that result in the transfer of alien species from one location to another. The identification and categorisation of pathways follows the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) classification as interpreted by the IUCN (2017). A hierarchical approach has been adopted to describe the pathways, based on the framework developed by Hulme et al. (2008). The three broad pathways shown above, in which a NIS can arrive, can be subdivided into six: importation of a commodity; arrival of a transport vector; or spread from a neighbouring region. Six principal pathways were identified under the CBD process (UNEP, 2014) as quoted below. Pathways related to transport of a commodity: 'Release in nature' refers to the intentional introduction of live alien organisms for the purpose of human use in the natural environment. Examples include for biological control; erosion control (and dune stabilisation); fishing or hunting in the wild; landscape 'improvement'; and the introduction of threatened organisms for conservation purposes. 'Escape; refers to the movement of (potentially) invasive alien species from confinement (e.g. aquaria; aquaculture and mariculture facilities; scientific research or breeding programmes). Through this pathway, the organisms were initially purposefully imported or otherwise transported to the confined conditions, but then escaped from such confinement, unintentionally. This may include the accidental or irresponsible release of live organisms from confinement, including cases such as the disposal of live food into the environment or the use of live baits in an unconfined water system. 'Transport–Contaminant' refers to the unintentional movement of live organisms as contaminants of a commodity that is intentionally transferred through international trade, development assistance, or emergency relief. This includes pests and fisheries as well as contaminants of other products. Related to a transport vector: 'Transport–Stowaway' refers to the moving of live organisms attached to transporting vessels and associated equipment and media. The physical means of transport-stowaway include various conveyances, ballast water and sediments, bio-fouling of ships, boats, offshore oil and gas platforms and other water vessels, dredging, angling or fishing equipment. Recreational boating is also included under this pathway. Corridor refers to the movement of alien organisms into a new region following the construction of transport infrastructures, in whose absence the spread would not have been possible. Such trans-bio-geographical corridors include international canals (connecting river catchments and seas).  'Unaided; refers to the secondary natural dispersal of invasive alien species that have been introduced by means of any of the foregoing pathways. While the secondary dispersal is unaided, it can only take place because of a previous human intervention. Information on the mechanisms of the secondary spread of invasive alien species, after their introduction, are relevant to define the best response measures. In this analysis, for simplicity and to be more specific to the marine environment, we used the first five categories. The fifth (Transport-Stowaway) was further subdivided into ballasts, fouling and other (offshore oil and gas platforms, and other water vessels, dredging, angling or fishing equipment). Trends in primary pathways over 6 year periods should tell a story when combined with management policies applied/implemented over the last decades.

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