Table 3.1 Municipal solid waste (MSW) management and selected policy instruments in European countries, 2001–2015

Page Last modified 18 Jan 2017

Country

Percentage of
MSW recycled
per MSW
generated,
2014

Percentage
of MSW
landfilled
per MSW
generated,
2014

Two or more
national waste
management
plans
developed
between
2001 and 2015
or latest
available
year

Only regional
waste
management
plans

Landfill tax
increased by
more than
50 %
from 2001
to latest
available
year

Landfill tax
at least
EUR 30/tonne
MSW, latest
available
year

Incineration
tax

Landfill ban
on organic
waste or
non-pretreated
MSW

Mandatory
separate
collection
of
bio-waste
fractions

Pay-as-
you-throw
or other
economic
incentives
for
recycling
MSW

Austria

56

4

×

 

×

Tax on reactive waste in compliant landfills until 2009

×

Tax on reactive waste in compliant landfills until 2009

×

 

×

 

×

×

Belgium

55

1

 

×

(×)

In Wallonia increase
more than 50 %

×

×

×

 

(×)

(Only in Flanders
and Wallonia)

Bulgaria

23

69

×

 

×

 

 

 

×

(Ordinance of 2013)

 

Croatia

16

80

×

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

 

Cyprus

18

76

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Czech Republic

25

56

×

 

×

 

 

 

×

(×)

Denmark

44

1

×

 

 

×

×

×

 

(×)

Estonia

31

6

×

 

×

×

 

×

 

×

Finland

33

17

Two plans in
the period 1998–2008

 

×

×

 

×

×

×

France

39

26

 

×

 

×

 

×

 

×

×

 

(×)

 

Germany

64

1

 

×

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

×

×

×

Greece

19

81

×

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

(×)

Hungary

31

57

×

 

×

 

 

×

(×)

Green
waste collection mandatory since 2015

(×)

Iceland

30

66

×

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

 

Ireland

37

38

 

×

×

×

 

(×)

×

(Food
waste collection
as of
2016)

×

(Regulation of 2015)

Italy

42

31

 

×

 

 

 

 

(×)

Only in
some
regions

(×)

 

Latvia

21

79

×

 

×

 

 

 

 

 

Lithuania

30

59

×

 

Tax will be introduced
in 2016

 

 

(×)

Ban on
landfilling biodegradable waste from gardens and parks

 

×

Luxembourg

47

18

Two plans
from 2000 to 2010

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

×

×

×

 

Malta

11

80

×

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

 

Netherlands

51

1

×

 

×

(Tax
abolished in 2012)

 

 

×

×

×

40 % of municipalities

Norway

42

3

(×)

(White Paper covering waste 2006–2007
and Waste Strategy
2013)

 

 

×

Tax abolished in 2015

(×)

Tax abolished in 2010

×

 

 

Poland

32

53

×

 

×

 

 

×

(Biodegradable waste
collected separately )

 

 

Portugal

30

49

×

 

×

 

×

 

 

 

Romania

13

72

 

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

 

Slovakia

10

66

×

 

 

 

 

 

×

×

Coverage unknown

Slovenia

36

23

 

 

 

 

 

×

 

×

Spain

33

55

×

 

(Tax only in regions of Catalonia
and Castile and León)

 

(×)

(Only in the region of Catalonia)

(×)

Ban on the disposal of recyclable materials

(×)

In the region of Catalonia and some other municipalities of other regions

(×)

Sweden

50

1

×

 

×

×

Tax abolished in 2010

×

 

×

Switzerland

54

0

 

×

 

 

 

×

 

×

Turkey

0.4

83

×

 

(No tax)

(No tax)

 

 

 

 

United Kingdom

44

28

 

×

×

×

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: Eurostat, 2016a; Environment Agency of Iceland, 2016 (recycling and landfill rates); ETC/WMGE, 2016.

Notes: (×) means that the instrument in the country is not mandatory or is implemented only in some regions or municipalities. On account of a lack of data: for Ireland and Greece2013 instead of 2014 data are used; for Turkey 2012 instead of 2014 data are used.

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