Countries' perspectives on SOER 2015 - Climate change mitigation cross-country comparison

Page Last modified 11 May 2020
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Photo: © Cristian Botea/EEA

Countries and regions


Ireland faces considerable challenges in moving to a low carbon economy. In particular, there is a significant risk that Ireland will not meet its EU 2020 targets. For the period 2020 to 2030, greenhouse gas emissions are projected to be 11 per cent higher again than in 2020 if further policies and measures are not in place to curb the growth in carbon intensity.


Total emissions of all greenhouse gasses in 2008 reached 9.5 Mt CO2 eq. They increased to 10.5 Mt CO2 eq. in 2009. This relatively high increase was driven almost solely by increased fossil fuel combustion. Carbon dioxide constitutes about 80% of all emissions, while methane and nitrous oxide are both about 10%. The so called new greenhouse gases, such as HFCs and PFCs, are almost negligible.

The most important sector for whole inventory is sector "1A Fuel combustion activities" which constitute about 80% of all anthropogenic emissions in Kosovo. The most important source category for Kosovo is solid fuels combustion.

Kosovo in comparison with other countries in Europe has still relatively low emissions per capita. This is mainly because of favourable geographical conditions and also because of the lack of energy intensive industries, intensive agriculture and lack of waste management. As we expect that all these factors will change in the future possibly increasing emissions, there is also an opportunity to follow carbon neutral development strategies.


The high level of GHG emissions per capita recorded for Luxembourg is explained by the same reasons that are presented for the air pollution indicator, more precisely for NOx. However, even if "road fuel sales to non-residents" are excluded, Luxembourg would still rank amongst those, in Europe, with the highest emissions per person.


According to the National Energy Outlook report 2014 (NEV in Dutch) cumulative emissions in the 2013-2020 period will amount to 808-811 megatons CO2-eq.; well below the target for non-ETS-sectors of 897 megatons in 2020.


Poland has fivefold overachieved the GHG reduction target as set out under the Kyoto Protocol for 2008-2012. The quantified emission reduction commitment for 2013-2020 under the Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, Poland will fulfil jointly with the European Union and overachievement of this target is expected. The annual GHG emissions for 1988-2012 in Poland can be found at CDR/EIONET and the UNFCCC websites:

It should be noted that following the recent national projection there is no risk in the context of meeting the Effort Sharing Decision target for non-trading sectors for Poland. The description of policies and measures undertaken and planned as well as GHG projections in Poland are given in the Sixth National Communication and the First Biennial Report to the Conference of the parties to the UNFCCC:



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