Author's preface

Aim of report

This report presents a concept for Comparable Environmental Impact Data on Cleaner Technologies (CEIDOCT). The aim of such a concept is to provide a framework for a systematic evaluation of cleaner technologies with the use of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs). The concept is aimed for use by industrial sectors and for reporting to environmental authorities, which have supported Cleaner Technology projects. The framework may be used by the authorities to structure environmental information when reporting to the public on environmental effects from use of Cleaner Technology, or from any other activity with a positive or negative impact on the environment.

The concept has not been finalised to an operational level with this report, but a basic framework has been defined.

The life cycle perspective

Cleaner technologies in this project are seen in a life cycle perspective, implying that it is necessary for the industry not only to look at EPIs for manufacturing at its own facility, but to include impacts from the whole product life cycle; i.e. from raw materials, manufacturing, use and disposal.

Structure of report

The executive summary and conclusions and recommendations are found in Chapter 1.

The idea behind the development of the CEIDOCT concept is described in Chapter 2. The backbone of the CEIDOCT concept developing EPIs inside four focus areas for environmental measures is also introduced. The four focus areas are: use of mineral resources, use of energy, use of chemicals and use of biological resources.

Search of literature for the use of EPIs, indicators used in connection with LCAs and assessments of cleaner technology are presented in Chapter 3.

The four focus areas are reviewed in Chapter 4. For each focus area, possible indicators at different levels of aggregation are discussed and identified.

In Chapter 5 the use of the concept is described for different levels and types of decision support.

The concept is tested in examples for three industrial sectors; the paper industry, the textile industry and surface treatment (zinc plating). Examples can be found in Chapter 6.

Extent of report

In the report the basic concept is described and illustrated via examples. The concept demonstrates a systematic way to illustrate and evaluate the environmental effects of cleaner technologies. The focus is on environmental problems relevant to the state of the environment in Denmark and Europe, but also on a global scale. The concept also includes a calculation, with the use of a life cycle approach, of the companies'/sector's environmental performance and recommends definition of technology-specific indicators for operational use.

Industry-specific indicators not included

The report does not contain a catalogue of environmental performance indicators or key data for industrial sectors; this remains to be developed. The examples stated represent, but do not fully cover, processes within the sectors mentioned and are thus only illustrative of the applicability of the developed concept. Involvement from the sectors in question has not been part of the terms for the project. This should be included in a later phase for development of industry-specific indicators.

A multi-purpose approach to Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs)

The concept outlined in this report may be used much more broadly than for Cleaner Technology evaluations. It consists of a somewhat new approach to the development of Environmental Performance Indicators in general, and may thus be used for many purposes such as environmental evaluation and declaration of products, environmental statements for companies, organisations and local communities.

Steering Committee

The accomplishment of the report has been followed by a Steering Committee consisting of the following:

Peter Schaarup, Miljøstyrelsen (chairman)
Ingvar Andersson, European Environment Agency
Henrik Kærgaard, COWI
Karen Leffland, COWI
Allan Herrstedt Jensen, Institut for Produktudvikling, IPU

Project Organisation

The project has been carried out in co-operation between COWI and IPU. It has involved several specialists from both organisations. The focus areas have been described by the following: Mineral Resources; Nina Caspersen, IPU and Erik Hansen, COWI, Energy; Allan Herrstedt Jensen and Henrik Wenzel, IPU, Chemicals; Stig Olsen and Michael Hauschild, IPU, Karen Leffland and Jesper Kjølholt, COWI, Biological Resources; Hans Riber and Ulla V. Andersen, COWI.

Examples, based on LCAs, have been made by Christian Kofod, IPU in co-operation with Hans Henrik Knudsen and Allan Herrstedt Jensen, IPU.


The main report has been prepared by Karen Leffland and Henrik Kærgaard, COWI and reviewed by IPU.


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