Annex I: Selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements since 1945

Water Pollution

1954 Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, amended 1962, 1969 and 1971 (IMO)
1958 Fishing in the Waters of the Danube (Danube Commission)
1961 Protocol on International Convention for the Protection of the Mosel Against Pollution (France, FRG and Luxembourg)
1963 International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine Against Pollution (Rhine Commission)
1969 Bonn Agreement on Cooperation against North Sea Oil Pollution
1969 Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (JMO)
1972 Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft (North East Atlantic) (Oslo Commission)
1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from the Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (IMO)
1973 Prevention of Pollution from Ships, protocol 1978 (MARPOL 73/78) (IMO)
1974 Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land Based Sources (NE Atlantic) (Paris Commission)
1974 Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Commission)
1976 Protection of the Rhine Against Chemical Pollution
1976 Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against pollution (UNEP), Protocols: Dumping by Ships and Aircraft (1976)

  • Combating Oil Pollution (1976)
  • Land Based Pollution Sources (1980)
  • Specially Protected Areas (1982)

1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (UN)
1982 Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic
1987 Cooperation on Management of Water Resources in the Danube Basin
1990 International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe
1992 Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (ECE)
1992 Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic (OSPAR Commission)

Air and Atmospheric Pollution

1967 Scandinavian Anti-Pollution Agreement
1979 Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (ECE), Protocols:

  • Long-term financing of EMEP (1984)
  • Nitrogen oxides (1988)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (1991)
  • Sulphur (1994; Oslo), replacing 1985 Helsinki Protocol

1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP), Protocol:

  • CFCs (1987; Montreal), amended 1990 (London) and 1992 (Copenhagen)

1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change

Wildlife and Habitats

1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling.
1950 Convention for the Protection of Birds
1951 Convention on International Plant Protection (FAO)
1970 Benelux Convention on Hunting and Protection of Birds (Benelux Economic Union)
1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (UNESCO)
1973 Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (UNEP)
1976 Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears
1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Council of Europe)
1979 Bonn Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (UNEP)
1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
1982 Benelux Convention on Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection (Benelux Economic Union)
1983 International Tropical Timber Agreement
1992 Convention on Biological Diversity

Dangerous Wastes and Chemicals

1957 Convention on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Road (ECE)
1968 European Detergents Agreement (Council of Europe)
1971 Convention for Civil Liability in Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material (IMO)
1989 Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (UNEP)
1992 Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents (ECE)

Culture and Heritage

1969 European Convention on Protection of Archaeological Heritage (Council of Europe)
1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO)

General Environmental Concerns

1991 Convention on Environmental impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (ECE)
1993 Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment (Council of Europe)



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