Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe COM(2011) 571

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Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe.  COM(2011) 571  

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Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe This indicator is used to illustrate the emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as the amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of the manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, the indicator shows a decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from  environmental impact (emission of pollutants). The decoupling indicator displays the percentage change in the emission of pollutants from manufacturing against the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing, while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of GVA. In line with the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33)) the following manufacturing industries are considered: Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    
Waste generation This indicator consists of three figures aimed entirely on waste generation excluding major mineral wastes, although in Figure 1 is also generation of total waste shown. Total waste consists about 65 % of mineral wastes, which represent a separate waste management sector with a large potential for material use. To take into account also other significant sources of waste production, in this indicator we focus only on waste excluding major mineral wastes. This exclusion enhances the quality of the indicator as the uncertainty over major mineral waste data and associated statistics (in particular construction and mining) is rather high. Major mineral wastes excluded from the indicator are according to Eurostat and European Waste Classification for statistical purposes (EWC-Stat, version 4): mineral construction and demolition waste (EWC-Stat 12.1), other mineral waste (12.2, 12.3, 12.5), soils (12.6) and dredging spoils (12.7). However, the indicator includes combustion wastes (EWC-Stat 12.4) and mineral wastes from waste treatment and stabilized wastes (EWC-Stat 13). Figure 1 shows indexed values of waste production, population and gross domestic product (GDP) with year 2010 as a reference year (2010=100 %). Production phase shows generation of total waste and waste excluding major mineral wastes in absolute terms. GDP was chosen as a basic indicator of the economic growth as it expresses the total value of goods and services produced in the country (the components of GDP include personal consumption expenditures plus business investment plus government spending plus (exports minus imports)).  Population expressed as average population is important demographic indicator which enables to gain perception about development in number of possible consumers and waste producers. Figure 2 shows waste generation, excluding major mineral wastes, by specific NACE activities including a separate category for waste generation in households and their share to total waste generation. Data presented in form of ring diagram are displayed as a comparison of the reference (2010) and last available year. Figure 3 shows waste generation, excluding major mineral wastes, per capita by European countries. Data presented in form of bar chart are displayed as a comparison of the reference (2010) and last available year.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Outlook from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) GDP can be calculated in three ways, providing different perspectives on the balance of economic activity. Essentially these three approaches consist of adding up the total value of incomes, spending or production in a country or region during a period of time. More formally they can be defined as follows (OECD, 2015b): the ‘income approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer unit; the ‘expenditure approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured in purchasers' prices, less the value of imports of goods and services; the ‘output approach’ calculates GDP as the sum of the gross values added of all resident institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs). Applying these approaches using current price data will deliver an estimate of nominal GDP. Nominal GDP data are often adjusted to facilitate meaningful comparisons of economic output between different time periods and between different countries. For example, nominal GDP is adjusted to remove the effects of price inflation in order to provide a more realistic measure of changes in the volume of economic production. Constant price estimates of GDP are obtained by calculating the value of production in different periods using the price levels from a single base period. Similarly, nominal GDP growth is converted into real GDP growth using the ‘GDP deflator’ (OECD, 2015a). Price differences between countries can likewise make it hard to compare the volume of national production using nominal price data at market exchange rates. Purchasing power parity (PPP) estimates of GDP compensate for differences in prices between countries to provide a better comparison of the volume of goods and services produced in different countries or regions. They thereby support better comparisons of living standards (OECD, 2015c). The data shown in this indicator are expressed in 2005 US dollars in PPP terms. References OECD, 2015a: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) – constant prices Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1164 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015b: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1163 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015c: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Purchasing power parities (PPPs) – OECD Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=2205 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe The indicator is used to illustrate emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, indicator shows decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from the environmental impact (emission of pollutants).Decoupling indicator displays the percentage of change in emission of pollutants from manufacturing plotted together with the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (between 2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of the GVA. In line with Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33) the following industries : are considered in the „manufacturing“:” Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manu- facture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machineryand equipment n.e.c. Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment   The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered for: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    
Recycling rates for packaging waste fractions and municipal waste This indicator shows recycling rates of packaging waste fractions and municipal waste, and is presented in two figures for the EU-15 and EU-27, respectively. What constitutes packaging waste is defined by Annex I to the Packaging Waste Directive (94/62/EC). Packaging comprises all products used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods, from the producer to the user or the consumer. 'Non-returnable' items used for the same purposes also constitute packaging. Packaging materials include paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, metals and glass. Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system. It mainly comprises household waste but similar wastes from sources such as services, offices and public institutions are included in Eurostat data. Wastes from agriculture and industry are not included. It should be noted that a large part of packaging wastes are reported as municipal waste. The recycling rate is the share of generated waste which undergoes material recovery (i.e. not energy recovery). Figure 1 presents recycling rates for packaging waste fractions (1998-2010) and for municipal waste (1995-2010) for the EU-15. Wood packaging wastes are first included from 2003 due to lack of reporting by a number of countries during earlier years. Figure 2 presents the same variables for the EU-27, but for the years 2004-2010 for packaging waste recycling rates. The underlying data has been reported to Eurostat by EU Member States.
Generation of non-mineral waste in EU-27 by sector This indicator shows the generation of waste, excluding mineral wastes from households and from key NACE* sectors (according to Rev. 2 categories**) in the EU-27 over time, both in absolute levels and indexed to 2004 levels, together with developments in GDP over the period 2004 to 2008. The indicator distinguishes waste generated by the following sectors: Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; Construction; Services (except wholesale of waste and scrap), and Households. The following mineral waste categories have been excluded from the totals for each sector (waste codes according to the EU Waste Statistics Regulation): 11.3 dredging spoils; 12.1 12.2 12.3 & 12.5 mineral wastes excluding combustion wastes, contaminated soils and polluted dredging spoils; and 12.6 contaminated soils and polluted dredging spoils. These mineral wastes have been removed due to the domination of such wastes in total waste, making it difficult to detect changes in other categories, and due to the very different treatment required by such mineral wastes compared to other types of waste. *NACE ’is the acronym used to designate the various statistical classifications of economic activities developed since 1970 in the European Union (EU).’ ( http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/NACE_backgrounds ). **Eurostat, EC (2008).  NACE Rev. 2 – Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-RA-07-015/EN/KS-RA-07-015-EN.PDF
Diversion of waste from landfill This indicator consists of three figures, which show trends in the landfilling of waste at European level (the EU-28 and other European countries for which data were available), and it focuses entirely on waste excluding major mineral wastes. Mineral wastes represent about 65 % of total waste and this exclusion enhances the quality of the indicator, as uncertainties over major mineral waste data and associated statistics (in particular construction and mining waste) are rather high. Major mineral wastes excluded from the indicator are, according to Eurostat and the European Waste Classification for Statistical Purposes (EWC-Stat, version 4), mineral construction and demolition waste (EWC-Stat 12.1), other mineral waste (EWC-Stat 12.2, 12.3 and 12.5), soils (EWC-Stat 12.6) and dredging spoils (EWC-Stat 12.7).  Fig. 1 combines two chart types. The stacked column chart represents the amounts and the proportions of waste deposited in landfill broken down into the most relevant waste categories. The category ‘other waste’ in the graph includes chemical and medical wastes, recyclable wastes, equipment wastes, animal and vegetal wastes, mixed and undifferentiated materials, and common sludges. The line chart, with the scale on the secondary vertical axis, represents landfilling rates. The landfilling rates relate to waste treated because imported waste is also included, which would not be the case if landfilling rates were related to waste generated. Decreasing landfilling rates indicate a positive development towards using waste as a resource and a more circular economy. Fig. 2 shows developments in landfilling rates in European countries in 2006 and 2017. Data are presented in descending order based on 2017 values. The line chart shows the landfill target for 2035 . Fig. 3 shows trends in municipal waste management for the period 2008-2017 and the distribution of specific waste treatment operations.  
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