Greenhouse gas emission intensity of fuels and biofuels for road transport in Europe

In 2019, the EU was not on track to meet its target to reduce the greenhouse gas emission intensity of fuels sold for road transport to 6% below 2010 levels by 2020. Between 2010 and 2019, emission intensity decreased by 4.3%, mostly due to the increased use of biofuels. Finland and Sweden are the only Member States whose emission intensities decreased by more than 6%, with the Netherlands reporting a 5.8% reduction in 2019. If the indirect land use change (ILUC) effects of biofuel production are considered, the emission intensity of fuels sold in the EU also decreased between 2018 and 2019, due to the limited substitution of oil crops as feedstocks by sugars.

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Use of renewable energy for transport in Europe

The share of energy from renewable sources used for transport in the EU increased from under 2% in 2005 to almost 9% in 2019. Preliminary EEA data indicate that in 2020, this increased further to 10.1%. This suggests that collectively the EU countries reached the 10% target for share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport. However, EEA preliminary estimates show that this target was actually achieved by less than half of EU Member States.

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Greenhouse gas emissions from transport in Europe

Greenhouse gas emissions from the EU’s transport sector increased steadily between 2013 and 2019, a trend that diverges significantly from those in other sectors during that period. Preliminary estimates for 2020 indicate a substantial drop in transport emissions, due to decreased activity during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is anticipated that transport emissions will rebound after 2020. National projections compiled by the EEA indicate that even with measures currently planned in the Member States, domestic transport emissions will only drop below their 1990 level in 2029. International transport emissions (aviation and maritime) are projected to continue increasing.

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CO2 performance of new passenger cars in Europe

Following a steady decline until 2016, average CO 2 emissions from new passenger cars registered in Europe increased between 2017 and 2019. Key reasons include the growth in the sport utility vehicle segment and an increased average mass. In 2019, average CO 2 emissions from all new cars reached 122.3 g CO 2 /km. Although this is below the EU fleet-wide target of 130 g CO 2 /km set for the period 2015-2019, it is well above the 2021 target of 95 g CO 2 /km, phased-in in 2020. Most car manufacturers met their individual binding CO 2 emission targets for fleets of newly registered passenger cars in 2019.

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CO2 performance emissions of new vans in Europe

Following a steady decline until 2017 and a slight increase between 2017 and 2018, average specific CO 2 emissions from new vans registered in Europe remained stable at 158.0 g CO 2 /km in 2019. Although this is below the fleet-wide target of 175 g CO 2 /km that applied in the period 2014-2019, it is well above the 147 g CO 2 /km target which applies since 2020. In 2019, almost all van manufacturers met their binding CO 2 emissions target.

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New registrations of electric vehicles in Europe

The uptake of electric vehicles in Europe is increasing, in line with the EU’s policy objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport. However, market penetration remains relatively low. In 2019, electric car registrations were close to 550 000 units, having reached 300 000 units in 2018. This represents an increase from 2 to 3.5 % of total car registrations. The uptake of electric vans also increased, from 0.8 % of total registrations in 2018 to 1.3 % in 2019. Battery electric vehicles, rather than plug-in hybrid, accounted for the majority of electric vehicle registrations in 2019 for cars and vans.

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Landscape fragmentation pressure and trends in Europe

In 2015, on average, there were around 1.5 fragmented landscape elements per km 2 in the European Union  [1] , a 3.7 % increase compared with 2009. Approximately 1.13 million km 2 , around 28 % of the area of the EU  [1] , was strongly fragmented i n 2015 , a 0.7 % increase compared with 2009. There was less of an increase in fragmented landscape elements and in the area of strongly fragmented landscape between 2012 and 2015 than between 2009 and 2012 (1.4 and 0.18 percentage points, respectively). Arable lands and permanent croplands (around 42 .6 %) and pastures and farmland mosaics (around 40.2 %) were most affected by strong fragmentation pressure in 2015 in the EU. Between 2009 and 2015, however, the largest increase in the area of strongly fragmented landscape was in grasslands/pastures and in farmland mosaics.   Luxembourg (91 %), Belgium (83 %) and Malta (70 %) had the largest proportions of strongly fragmented landscape in 2015 (as a proportion of their country area). The Baltic countries and Finland and Sweden were on average the least fragmented countries in the EU. Between 2009 and 2015, the area of strongly fragmented landscape increased most in Croatia, as well as in Greece, Hungary and Poland. [1]  Romania is excluded because of the poor coverage of fragmentation geometry data in 2009.  

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