Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC)

Policy Document
Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives (Text with EEA relevance)

Related content

Related indicators

Waste generation This indicator consists of three figures aimed entirely on waste generation excluding major mineral wastes, although in Figure 1 is also generation of total waste shown. Total waste consists about 65 % of mineral wastes, which represent a separate waste management sector with a large potential for material use. To take into account also other significant sources of waste production, in this indicator we focus only on waste excluding major mineral wastes. This exclusion enhances the quality of the indicator as the uncertainty over major mineral waste data and associated statistics (in particular construction and mining) is rather high. Major mineral wastes excluded from the indicator are according to Eurostat and European Waste Classification for statistical purposes (EWC-Stat, version 4): mineral construction and demolition waste (EWC-Stat 12.1), other mineral waste (12.2, 12.3, 12.5), soils (12.6) and dredging spoils (12.7). However, the indicator includes combustion wastes (EWC-Stat 12.4) and mineral wastes from waste treatment and stabilized wastes (EWC-Stat 13). Figure 1 shows indexed values of waste production, population and gross domestic product (GDP) with year 2010 as a reference year (2010=100 %). Production phase shows generation of total waste and waste excluding major mineral wastes in absolute terms. GDP was chosen as a basic indicator of the economic growth as it expresses the total value of goods and services produced in the country (the components of GDP include personal consumption expenditures plus business investment plus government spending plus (exports minus imports)).  Population expressed as average population is important demographic indicator which enables to gain perception about development in number of possible consumers and waste producers. Figure 2 shows waste generation, excluding major mineral wastes, by specific NACE activities including a separate category for waste generation in households and their share to total waste generation. Data presented in form of ring diagram are displayed as a comparison of the reference (2010) and last available year. Figure 3 shows waste generation, excluding major mineral wastes, per capita by European countries. Data presented in form of bar chart are displayed as a comparison of the reference (2010) and last available year.
Progress in management of contaminated sites The term 'contaminated site' (CS) refers to a well-defined area where the presence of soil contamination has been confirmed and this presents a potential risk to humans, water, ecosystems or other receptors. Risk management measures, e.g. remediation, may be needed depending on the severity of the risk of adverse impacts to receptors under the current or planned use of the site. The term 'potentially contaminated site' (PCS) refers to sites where unacceptable soil contamination is suspected but not verified, and where detailed investigations need to be carried out to verify whether there is an unacceptable risk of adverse impacts on receptors. Both of these parameters were introduced for the first time in the 2011 data request. The scale of soil contamination was also assessed in previous data requests but results were derived from other parameters (in particular the four key management steps); an approach that was abandoned in the 2011 data request. Management of contaminated sites aims to assess and, where necessary, reduce the risk of adverse impacts on receptors to an acceptable level. This management process starts with a basic desk study or historical investigation, which may lead to more detailed site investigations and, depending on the outcome of these, remediation measures. The indicator shows progress in four key management steps: preliminary study/site identification, preliminary investigation, main site investigation, and implementation of risk reduction measures. Under each management step, two stages can be distinguished: estimation of the number of sites in need of this specific step, and actual counting or completion of this specific management step. In addition, the indicator reports the costs to society of site management, the main activities responsible for soil contamination and the outcomes of managing contaminated sites.
Recycling rates for packaging waste fractions and municipal waste This indicator shows recycling rates of packaging waste fractions and municipal waste, and is presented in two figures for the EU-15 and EU-27, respectively. What constitutes packaging waste is defined by Annex I to the Packaging Waste Directive (94/62/EC). Packaging comprises all products used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods, from the producer to the user or the consumer. 'Non-returnable' items used for the same purposes also constitute packaging. Packaging materials include paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, metals and glass. Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system. It mainly comprises household waste but similar wastes from sources such as services, offices and public institutions are included in Eurostat data. Wastes from agriculture and industry are not included. It should be noted that a large part of packaging wastes are reported as municipal waste. The recycling rate is the share of generated waste which undergoes material recovery (i.e. not energy recovery). Figure 1 presents recycling rates for packaging waste fractions (1998-2010) and for municipal waste (1995-2010) for the EU-15. Wood packaging wastes are first included from 2003 due to lack of reporting by a number of countries during earlier years. Figure 2 presents the same variables for the EU-27, but for the years 2004-2010 for packaging waste recycling rates. The underlying data has been reported to Eurostat by EU Member States.
Generation of non-mineral waste in EU-27 by sector This indicator shows the generation of waste, excluding mineral wastes from households and from key NACE* sectors (according to Rev. 2 categories**) in the EU-27 over time, both in absolute levels and indexed to 2004 levels, together with developments in GDP over the period 2004 to 2008. The indicator distinguishes waste generated by the following sectors: Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; Construction; Services (except wholesale of waste and scrap), and Households. The following mineral waste categories have been excluded from the totals for each sector (waste codes according to the EU Waste Statistics Regulation): 11.3 dredging spoils; 12.1 12.2 12.3 & 12.5 mineral wastes excluding combustion wastes, contaminated soils and polluted dredging spoils; and 12.6 contaminated soils and polluted dredging spoils. These mineral wastes have been removed due to the domination of such wastes in total waste, making it difficult to detect changes in other categories, and due to the very different treatment required by such mineral wastes compared to other types of waste. *NACE ’is the acronym used to designate the various statistical classifications of economic activities developed since 1970 in the European Union (EU).’ ( http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/NACE_backgrounds ). **Eurostat, EC (2008).  NACE Rev. 2 – Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-RA-07-015/EN/KS-RA-07-015-EN.PDF
Diversion of waste from landfill This indicator consists of three figures, which show trends in the landfilling of waste at European level (the EU-28 and other European countries for which data were available), and it focuses entirely on waste excluding major mineral wastes. Mineral wastes represent about 65 % of total waste and this exclusion enhances the quality of the indicator, as uncertainties over major mineral waste data and associated statistics (in particular construction and mining waste) are rather high. Major mineral wastes excluded from the indicator are, according to Eurostat and the European Waste Classification for Statistical Purposes (EWC-Stat, version 4), mineral construction and demolition waste (EWC-Stat 12.1), other mineral waste (EWC-Stat 12.2, 12.3 and 12.5), soils (EWC-Stat 12.6) and dredging spoils (EWC-Stat 12.7).  Fig. 1 combines two chart types. The stacked column chart represents the amounts and the proportions of waste deposited in landfill broken down into the most relevant waste categories. The category ‘other waste’ in the graph includes chemical and medical wastes, recyclable wastes, equipment wastes, animal and vegetal wastes, mixed and undifferentiated materials, and common sludges. The line chart, with the scale on the secondary vertical axis, represents landfilling rates. The landfilling rates relate to waste treated because imported waste is also included, which would not be the case if landfilling rates were related to waste generated. Decreasing landfilling rates indicate a positive development towards using waste as a resource and a more circular economy. Fig. 2 shows developments in landfilling rates in European countries in 2006 and 2017. Data are presented in descending order based on 2017 values. The line chart shows the landfill target for 2035 . Fig. 3 shows trends in municipal waste management for the period 2008-2017 and the distribution of specific waste treatment operations.  
Document Actions
Sign up to receive our reports (print and/or electronic) and quarterly e-newsletter.
Follow us