Directive 99/31/EC on landfill of Waste

Policy Document
Directive 99/31/EC on landfill of Waste

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Diversion of waste from landfill This indicator consists of three figures, which show trends in the landfilling of waste at European level (the EU-28 and other European countries for which data were available), and it focuses entirely on waste excluding major mineral wastes. Mineral wastes represent about 65 % of total waste and this exclusion enhances the quality of the indicator, as uncertainties over major mineral waste data and associated statistics (in particular construction and mining waste) are rather high. Major mineral wastes excluded from the indicator are, according to Eurostat and the European Waste Classification for Statistical Purposes (EWC-Stat, version 4), mineral construction and demolition waste (EWC-Stat 12.1), other mineral waste (EWC-Stat 12.2, 12.3 and 12.5), soils (EWC-Stat 12.6) and dredging spoils (EWC-Stat 12.7).  Combustion waste regards to waste code W124 according to ECW-Stat Waste Categories Reported under the Waste Statistics Regulation.   Fig. 1 combines two chart types. The stacked column chart represents the amounts and the proportions of waste deposited in landfill broken down into the most relevant waste categories. The category ‘other waste’ in the graph includes chemical and medical wastes, recyclable wastes, equipment wastes, animal and vegetal wastes, mixed and undifferentiated materials, and common sludges. The line chart, with the scale on the secondary vertical axis, represents landfilling rates. The landfilling rates relate to waste treated because imported waste is also included, which would not be the case if landfilling rates were related to waste generated. Decreasing landfilling rates indicate a positive development towards using waste as a resource and a more circular economy. Fig. 2 shows developments in landfilling rates in European countries in 2006 and 2017. Data are presented in descending order based on 2017 values. The line chart shows the landfill target for 2035 . Fig. 3 shows trends in municipal waste management for the period 2008-2017 and the distribution of specific waste treatment operations.  
Progress in management of contaminated sites The term 'contaminated site' (CS) refers to a well-defined area where the presence of soil contamination has been confirmed and this presents a potential risk to humans, water, ecosystems or other receptors. Risk management measures, e.g. remediation, may be needed depending on the severity of the risk of adverse impacts to receptors under the current or planned use of the site. The term 'potentially contaminated site' (PCS) refers to sites where unacceptable soil contamination is suspected but not verified, and where detailed investigations need to be carried out to verify whether there is an unacceptable risk of adverse impacts on receptors. Both of these parameters were introduced for the first time in the 2011 data request. The scale of soil contamination was also assessed in previous data requests but results were derived from other parameters (in particular the four key management steps); an approach that was abandoned in the 2011 data request. Management of contaminated sites aims to assess and, where necessary, reduce the risk of adverse impacts on receptors to an acceptable level. This management process starts with a basic desk study or historical investigation, which may lead to more detailed site investigations and, depending on the outcome of these, remediation measures. The indicator shows progress in four key management steps: preliminary study/site identification, preliminary investigation, main site investigation, and implementation of risk reduction measures. Under each management step, two stages can be distinguished: estimation of the number of sites in need of this specific step, and actual counting or completion of this specific management step. In addition, the indicator reports the costs to society of site management, the main activities responsible for soil contamination and the outcomes of managing contaminated sites.
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