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Greenhouse gas emission intensity of fuels and biofuels for road transport in Europe

Indicator
ownership
Metadata
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Climate action, Life on land
Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Driving forces
Supporting information
[{"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology for indicator calculation"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The EEA and ETC/CME support the European Commission in the compilation, quality checking and dissemination of information reported under Article 7a of the "}, {"type": "zotero", "data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">EU, 1998, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC, OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58-68.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "JXWYE2FL", "uid": "TYmkk", "footnoteTitle": "EU, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC"}, "children": [{"text": "FQD"}]}, {"text": ". Details on the reporting obligation can be found in the EEA's "}, {"url": "https://rod.eionet.europa.eu/obligations/757", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://rod.eionet.europa.eu/obligations/757", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "children": [{"text": "Reporting Obligation Database"}]}, {"text": "\u00a0and "}, {"url": "http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/fqd", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/fqd", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "children": [{"text": "Central Data Repository"}]}, {"text": "."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology for gap filling"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No methodology for gap filling has been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology references"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No methodology references available."}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/greenhouse-gas-intensities-of-transport", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/greenhouse-gas-intensities-of-transport", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Greenhouse gas intensities of transport fuels in the EU in 2020 (direct link to the datasets is not available)"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://www.eionet.europa.eu/etcs/etc-cm/products/etc-cm-report-2022-02", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/greenhouse-gas-intensities-of-transport", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Greenhouse gas intensities of transport fuels in the EU in 2020 (direct link to the datasets is not available)"}]}, {"text": ""}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "EU Member States report annually on the volumes, energy content and life cycle GHG emissions of fuels used in road transport and non-road mobile machinery, in line with their obligations under the "}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A31998L0070", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A31998L0070", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "zotero", "data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">EU, 1998, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC, OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58-68.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "JXWYE2FL", "uid": "iCKXy", "footnoteTitle": "EU, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC"}, "children": [{"text": "Fuel Quality Directive 98/70/EC (FQD) Article 7a"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"text": ". Standards relevant to this reporting requirement are inter alia:"}]}, {"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "EN 228:2012"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "EN-ISO 5164:2014"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "ISO 5163:2014"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "EN 13016-1:2018\u00a0\u00a0"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "This indicator summarises the information reported by the EU Member States \u2014 and subsequently collected, checked and compiled by the European Environment Agency together with the European Topic Centre on Climate Change Mitigation and Energy (ETC/CME) \u2014 on the volume, energy consumption and GHG intensity of fossil fuels and biofuels."}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of energy produced (g CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ);"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Reduction in GHG emissions intensity (%)"}]}]
[{"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Justification for indicator selection"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Policy relevance"}]}, {"text": ": Transport consumes one third of all final energy in the EU. The bulk of this energy comes from oil. This means that transport is responsible for a large share of the EU\u2019s greenhouse gas emissions and is a major contributor to climate change. While most other economic sectors, such as power production and industry, have reduced their emissions since 1990, those from transport have risen. They now account for more than one quarter of the EU\u2019s total greenhouse gas emissions. A reversal of this trend is currently not in sight. That makes the transport sector a major obstacle to realising the EU\u2019s climate protection goals."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "EU strategy documents focus on decarbonising transport. The European Commission\u2019s 2018 strategy, \u2018"}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2_dgclima_rungemetzger.pdf", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2_dgclima_rungemetzger.pdf", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "children": [{"text": "A clean planet for all: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy"}]}, {"text": "\u2019, seeks to chart the course for a transition towards \u2018net-zero\u2019 greenhouse gas emissions across the EU by 2050. For transport, it underlines the need for a system-based approach, stresses the importance of switching to low-carbon modes and zero-emission vehicles, underlines the central role of electrification and renewable energy sources, and pushes for operational efficiency improvements."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Similarly, from 2016, the \u2018"}, {"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/a-european-strategy-for-low", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/a-european-strategy-for-low", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "children": [{"text": "European strategy for low-emission mobility"}]}, {"text": "\u2019 has identified a more efficient transport system, the rapid deployment of low-emission fuels and the transition towards low- and zero-emission vehicles as priority areas for action (EEA, 2020)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "In the context of these policies, the FQD (together with the Renewable Energy Directive) shall ensure that fuels from renewable sources such as crops and oils do not have negative impacts on land use, e.g. converting pasture or agricultural land previously destined for food and feed markets to biofuel production, while at the same time reducing the lifecycle greenhouse intensity of road fuels through the inclusion of biofuels."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Environmental relevance"}]}, {"text": ": The blending of biofuels is one of the methods available for fossil fuel suppliers to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of the fossil fuels supplied. Where pasture or agricultural land previously destined for food and feed markets is diverted to biofuel production, the non-fuel demand will still need to be satisfied either through intensification of current production or by bringing non-agricultural land into production elsewhere. The latter case constitutes indirect land-use change and, when it involves the conversion of land with high carbon stock, it can lead to significant greenhouse gas emissions ("}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32015L1513", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32015L1513", "target": "_self"}}, "title": ""}, "children": [{"text": "Directive (EU) 2015/1513"}]}, {"text": "). The FQD includes provisions to address the impacts of indirect land-use change while monitoring to what extend the share of biofuels in road transport fuels is increasing."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "strong", "children": [{"text": "Scientific references "}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "No rationale references available."}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Targets"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No targets have been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Related policy documents"}]}, {"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "li", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:9cdbfc9b-d814-4e9e-b05d-49dbb7c97ba1.0008.02/DOC_1&format=PDF", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:9cdbfc9b-d814-4e9e-b05d-49dbb7c97ba1.0008.02/DOC_1&format=PDF", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Directive 98/70/EC, quality of petrol and diesel fuels"}]}, {"text": ". Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 93/12/EEC "}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/2050_en", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/2050_en", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "EC, 2020, \"2050 long-term strategy\""}]}, {"text": ". The EU aims to be climate-neutral by 2050 \u2013 an economy with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. This objective is at the heart of the\u00a0 European Green Deal \u00a0and in line with the EU\u2019s commitment to global climate action under the\u00a0 Paris Agreement . "}]}]}]
1
[{"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No methodology uncertainty has been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Data set uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No data set uncertainty has been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Rationale uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No rationale uncertainty has been specified.\u00a0"}]}]
[]
Workflow
Layout
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This is because their road transport fuel mixes have relatively high proportions of biofuels (23.2% in Sweden and 8.7% in Sweden) and, on average, the biofuels used have relatively low emission intensities (15.4\u00a0g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ, 12.1 g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"text": ", respectively)."}]}]}, "02ba4a04-fcfe-4968-806f-1dac3119cfef": {"geolocation": [{"group": ["EEA32", "EEA33", "EEA39", "EU15", "EU25", "EU27", "EU28", "Pan-Europe"], "value": "geo-2782113", "label": "Austria"}, {"group": ["EEA32", "EEA33", "EEA39", "EU15", "EU25", "EU27", "EU28", "Pan-Europe"], "value": "geo-2802361", "label": "Belgium"}, {"group": ["EEA32", "EEA33", "EEA39", "EU27", "EU28", "Pan-Europe"], "value": "geo-732800", "label": "Bulgaria"}, {"group": ["EEA32", "EEA33", "EEA39", "EU28", "Pan-Europe"], "value": "geo-3202326", "label": "Croatia"}, {"group": 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higher emission intensities (26.9g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ)."}]}]}, "ccab530e-35eb-42e4-b3d4-b8f86969f74e": {"plaintext": "The effect that ILUC has on reductions in Member States\u2019 emission intensities largely depends on the feedstocks used to produce biofuels. 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Oil crops are used extensively in several Member States such as Austria and Poland (85% for each country) and, if ILUC effects are considered, the GHG emission intensity of these biofuels is only marginally lower than diesel produced from fossil fuels (i.e., 79g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ in Austria and 81g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ in Poland versus 95.1g\u00a0CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e/MJ for diesel)."}]}]}}, "blocks_layout": {"items": ["02ba4a04-fcfe-4968-806f-1dac3119cfef", "41204bf9-edd3-4685-8764-0c798c5df6be", "807f1f5e-6e5b-4bfd-bf65-cfc4fb549663", "ccab530e-35eb-42e4-b3d4-b8f86969f74e"]}}, "@type": "group", "block": "aecaf7cb-4614-4926-870b-a490f8b1e443", "allowedBlocks": ["slate"]}, "526dd0cb-003f-4ae6-accb-e6e3975f73cd": {"ignoreSpaces": true, "@layout": "1bc4379d-cddb-4120-84ad-5ab025533b12", "title": "Aggregate level assessment", "maxChars": "2000", "required": true, "disableNewBlocks": false, "as": "section", "placeholder": "Aggregate level assessment e.g. progress at global, EU level..", "disableInnerButtons": true, "readOnlySettings": true, "instructions": {"data": "<p><strong>Assessment text remains at</strong> <strong>the relevant</strong> <strong>aggregate level</strong> <strong>(i.e.</strong> <strong>global, EU, sectoral)</strong> <strong>and addresses the following: </strong></p><ol keys=\"dkvn8,e367c,f4lpb,9j981,7ai6k,3g3pd\" depth=\"0\"><li>Explains in one or two sentences on the environmental rationale of the indicator, i.e. why it matters to the environment that we see an increase/decrease in the value measured.</li><li>Explains in one or two sentences the associated policy objective, which can be either quantitative or directional. 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Cutting emissions from transport is pivotal to achieving the EU target of becoming climate neutral by 2050 .", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Transport is responsible for more than 25% of the EU\u2019s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a major contributor to climate change. Cutting emissions from transport is pivotal to achieving the "}, {"type": "zotero", "data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">EC, 2020, '2050 long-term strategy', <i>European Commission</i> (https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/2050_en) accessed July 30, 2020.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "RPDT3XMU", "uid": "Xaqxm", "footnoteTitle": "EC, 2020, 2050 long-term strategy"}, "children": [{"text": "EU target of becoming climate neutral by 2050"}]}, {"text": "."}]}]}, "ab8e6a1d-aa21-4706-941b-d217f3f4462a": {"plaintext": "The decrease in emission intensity of road transport fuels between 2019 and 2020 can be attributed mainly to an increase (from 5.6% to 6.8%) in the proportion of biofuels used, as biofuels have a lower emission intensity than fossil fuels. However, it is important to ensure that rising demand for biofuels does not have a negative impact on land use by displacing the production of food and feed crops and driving the conversion of land \u2014 such as forests and wetlands \u2014 to agricultural land, leading indirectly to increased GHG emissions. This phenomenon is known as indirect land us change (ILUC). The FQD requires that Member States identify the feedstock from which their biofuels originate and estimate emissions resulting from ILUC for certain feedstocks.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The decrease in emission intensity of road transport fuels between 2019 and 2020 can be attributed mainly to an increase (from 5.6% to 6.8%) in the proportion of biofuels used, as biofuels have a lower emission intensity than fossil fuels. However, it is important to ensure that rising demand for biofuels does not have a negative impact on land use by displacing the production of food and feed crops and driving the conversion of land \u2014 such as forests and wetlands \u2014 to agricultural land, leading indirectly to increased GHG emissions. This phenomenon is known as indirect land us change (ILUC). The FQD requires that Member States identify the feedstock from which their biofuels originate and estimate emissions resulting from ILUC for certain feedstocks."}]}]}, "deb7e84d-d2c8-4491-90fa-3dc65fe02143": {"plaintext": "", "required": true, "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}], "readOnlySettings": true, "fixed": true, "@type": "slate", "instructions": {"data": "<p><br/></p>", "content-type": "text/html", "encoding": "utf8"}}, "498598aa-0980-47fe-8f20-d2c053a7e2b9": {"plaintext": "Emissions from ILUC are not considered for assessing compliance with the 6% 2020 reduction target. If ILUC is taken into account, the average GHG emission intensity of fuels consumed in 2019 is only 3.3% lower than in 2010; it has been decreasing since 2018 because of the decreased use of oils crops, which are substituted by sugars with lower GHG intensity.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Emissions from ILUC are not considered for assessing compliance with the 6% 2020 reduction target. If ILUC is taken into account, the average GHG emission intensity of fuels consumed in 2019 is only 3.3% lower than in 2010; it has been decreasing since 2018 because of the decreased use of oils crops, which are substituted by sugars with lower GHG intensity."}]}]}, "7faba400-b174-4a7f-9c7e-6c5f550064e9": {"plaintext": "To support a reduction in GHG emissions from transport, the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) set the target that fuel suppliers should reduce the emission intensity of fuels sold in the EU by 6% by 2020, compared with 2010 levels. In 2018, the average emission intensity of fuels in the EU was 3.7% lower than in 2010, and in 2019, a 4.3% reduction had been achieved. For 2020, a 5.5% reduction was achieved compared with 2010 levels.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "To support a reduction in GHG emissions from transport, the "}, {"type": "zotero", "data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">EU, 1998, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC, OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58-68.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "JXWYE2FL", "uid": "nF6YZ", "footnoteTitle": "EU, Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC"}, "children": [{"text": "Fuel Quality Directive (FQD)"}]}, {"text": " set the target that fuel suppliers should reduce the emission intensity of fuels sold in the EU by 6% by 2020, compared with 2010 levels. In 2018, the average emission intensity of fuels in the EU was 3.7% lower than in 2010, and in 2019, a 4.3% reduction had been achieved. For 2020, a 5.5% reduction was achieved compared with 2010 levels. 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