Key policy question-key message per Indicator

Data table via SPARQL Published 03 Oct 2013 Last modified 15 Oct 2019
Key policy questions - key messages per Indicator/last assessment: after specific request of Aphrodite.

Download this dataset

Dataset preview

(Live Query)

code specification_name specification last_assessment key_question key_message
"APE001" "Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions (APE 001)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-sulphur-dioxide-so2-emissions-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-sulphur-dioxide-so2-emissions-1/assessment-3> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of SO2?"@en "<ul>\n<li>EEA-33 emissions of sulphur oxides (SO<sub>X</sub>) have decreased by 74% between 1990 and 2011. In 2011, the most significant sectoral source of SO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions was 'Energy production and distribution' (58% of total emissions), followed by emissions occurring from 'Energy use in industry' (20%) and in the 'Commercial, institutional and households' (15%) sector.</li>\n<li>The reduction in emissions since 1990 has been achieved as a result of a combination of measures, including fuel-switching in energy-related sectors away from high-sulphur solid and liquid fuels to low-sulphur fuels such as natural gas, the fitting of flue gas desulphurisation abatement technology in industrial facilities and the impact of European Union directives relating to the\u00a0sulphur content of certain liquid fuels.</li>\n<li>All of the EU-28 Member States have reduced their national SO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions below the level of the 2010 emission ceilings set in the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD)<sup>[1]</sup>. Emissions in 2011 for the three EEA countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) were also below the level of their respective 2010 ceilings.</li>\n<li>Environmental context: Typically, sulphur dioxide is emitted when fuels or other materials containing sulphur are combusted or oxidised. It is a pollutant that contributes to acid deposition, which, in turn, can lead to changes in soil and water quality. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. SO<sub>2</sub>\u00a0emissions also aggravate asthma conditions and can reduce lung function and inflame the respiratory tract. They also contribute, as a secondary particulate pollutant, to the formation of particulate matter in the atmosphere, an important air\u00a0pollutant in terms of its adverse impact on human health. Furthermore, the formation of sulphate particles in the atmosphere following the release of SO<sub>2</sub> results in reflection of solar radiation, which leads to net cooling of the atmosphere.</li>\n</ul>\n<p><sup>[1]</sup>\u00a0Emissions data reported by EU Member States under NECD is used for comparison with NECD ceilings, and data reported under CLRTAP is used for all other calculations unless otherwise stated.</p>"@en
"APE002" "Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (APE 002)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-nitrogen-oxides-nox-emissions-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-nitrogen-oxides-nox-emissions-1/assessment.2010-08-19.0140149032-3> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of NOx?"@en "<ul>\n<ul>\n<li>EEA-33 emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>X</sub>) decreased by 44% between 1990 and 2011. In 2011, the most significant sources of NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions were 'Road transport' (41%), 'Energy production and distribution' (23%) and the 'Commercial, institutional and households' (13%) sectors.</li>\n<li>The largest reduction of emissions in absolute terms since 1990 has occurred in the road transport sector, from which emissions in the EEA-33 have fallen 48% since 1990; in all years since 1990, emissions in this sector have fallen compared with the previous year, by an average of 3% per year. This reduction has been achieved despite the general increase in activity within this sector since the early 1990s and has primarily been achieved as a result of fitting three-way catalysts to petrol fuelled vehicles. However, ambient urban concentrations of NO<sub>2</sub>\u00a0in EU-28 countries in recent years have not fallen by as much as reported emissions and a number of Member States' NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions could therefore be systematically higher than currently calculated.</li>\n<li>In the electricity/energy production sector, reductions have occurred as a result of measures such as the introduction of combustion modification technologies (e.g. the use of low NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0burners, which reduce formation of NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0in combustion), the implementation of flue-gas abatement techniques (e.g. NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0scrubbers and selective catalytic and non-catalytic reduction techniques - SCR and SNCR) and fuel-switching from coal to gas (which has significantly lower NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions per unit energy).</li>\n<li>The National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) specifies NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emission ceilings for Member States that must have been met by 2010. In general, the newer EU Member States have made substantially better progress against their respective NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0ceilings than the older Member States of the EU-15. Twelve of the EU-13 Member States had reduced their emissions beyond what is required under the NECD<sup>[1]</sup>\u00a0by\u00a02010, and by 2011 all had met their targets. In contrast, only five EU-15 Member States reported 2010 emissions within their respective national ceilings and by 2011 this had increased to just eight. Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol, only Switzerland reported 2011 emissions below the\u00a0level of their 2010 ceiling.</li>\n<li>Environmental context: NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication of soil and water. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. Eutrophication can lead to severe reductions in water quality with subsequent impacts including decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects. NO<sub>2</sub>\u00a0is associated with adverse effects on human health, as at high concentrations it can cause inflammation of the airways and reduced lung function, increasing susceptibility to respiratory infection. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate aerosols and tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere, both of which are important air pollutants due to their adverse impacts on human health and other climate effects.<sup> <br /></sup></li>\n</ul>\n</ul>\n<p>\u00a0</p>\n<p><sup>[1]</sup> Emissions data reported by EU member states under NECD is used for comparison with NECD ceilings, while data reported under CLRTAP is used for all other calculations unless otherwise stated.</p>"@en
"APE003" "Ammonia (NH3) emissions (APE 003)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-ammonia-nh3-emissions-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-ammonia-nh3-emissions-1/assessment-4> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of NH3?"@en "<ul>\n<li>EEA-33 emissions of NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0have declined by 25% between the years 1990 and 2011. Agriculture was responsible for 94% of NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0emissions in 2011.</li>\n<li>The reduction in emissions within the agricultural sector is primarily due to a reduction in livestock numbers (especially cattle) since 1990, changes in the handling and management of organic manures and from the decreased use of nitrogenous fertilisers. The reductions achieved in the agricultural sector have been marginally offset by the increase in annual emissions over this period in the road-transport sector, and to a lesser extent, the 'Solvent and product use' and 'Non-road transport' sectors.</li>\n<li>All but three of the EU-28 Member States reported 2011 national NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0emissions\u00a0that meet the continuing obligation to stay below the 2010 emission ceilings set in the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD)<sup>[1]</sup>. Emissions in 2011 for one of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein,\u00a0Norway and Switzerland) were also below the level of the respective 2010 ceilings. In 2010 emissions of NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0in Denmark and Germany were slightly (less than 1%) above their ceiling; in Denmark these have now reduced below their ceiling, however, in Germany they have risen a further 2%.</li>\n<li>Environmental context: NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes, and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. Eutrophication can lead to severe reductions in water quality with subsequent impacts including decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects. NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate aerosols, an important air pollutant due to its adverse impacts on human health.</li>\n</ul>\n<p><sup>[1]</sup>\u00a0Emissions data reported by EU Member States under NECD is used for comparison with NECD ceilings, and data reported under CLRTAP is used for all other calculations unless otherwise stated.</p>"@en
"APE005" "Heavy metal emissions (APE 005)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-heavy-metal-hm-emissions-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-heavy-metal-hm-emissions-1/assessment-4> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of heavy metals?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Across the EEA-33 countries, emissions of lead decreased by 89%, mercury by 66% and cadmium by 64% between 1990 and 2012.</li>\n<li>Emissions from the road transport sector have decreased by nearly 98%. Nevertheless, the road transport sector still remains an important source\u00a0of lead, contributing around 12% of total lead emissions in the EEA-33 region. However, since 2004, little progress has been made in reducing emissions further; 97.9% of the total reduction from 1990 emissions of lead had been achieved by 2004.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"APE006" "Persistent organic pollutant emissions (APE 006)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-persistent-organic-pollutant-pop-emissions-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-persistent-organic-pollutant-pop-emissions-1/assessment-4> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Emissions of a number of compounds categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) - e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB, by 92%), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, by 85%), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, by 75%), dioxins &amp; furans (by 83%), and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, by 61%) - decreased between 1990 and 2012 in the EEA-33 countries. While the majority of countries report that POPs emissions fell during this period, a number report that increased emissions occurred.</li>\n<li>In 2012, the most significant sources of emissions for these POPs included \u2018Commercial, institutional and households\u2019 (10% of HCB, 32% of dioxins and furans, 16% of PCBs) and \u2018Industrial processes\u2019 (70% of HCB, 32% of HCH, 27% of PCBs) sectors.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"APE008" "Emissions of ozone precursors (CSI 002/APE 008)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/emissions-of-ozone-precursors-version-2> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/emissions-of-ozone-precursors-version-2/assessment-4> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of ozone precursors across Europe?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Emissions of the main ground-level ozone precursor pollutants have decreased across the EEA-33 region between 1990 and 2011; nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>X</sub>) by 44%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) by 57%, carbon monoxide (CO) by 61%, and methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) by 29%.</li>\n<li>This decrease has been achieved mainly as a result of the introduction of catalytic converters for vehicles, which has significantly reduced emissions of NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0and CO from the road transport sector, the main source of ozone precursor emissions.</li>\n<li>The EU-28 as a whole reported 2011 emissions at 4% below the 2010 NECD ceiling for NO<sub>X</sub>, one of the two ozone precursors (NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0and NMVOC) for which emission limits exist under the EU's NEC Directive (NECD). Total NMVOC emissions in the EU-28 were 22% below the 2010 NECD limit in 2011, however, seven of individual Member States did not meet their ceilings for one or both of these two pollutants.</li>\n<li>Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings for 2010 set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), all reported NMVOC emissions in 2011 that were lower than their respective ceilings, however Liechtenstein and Norway reported 2011 NO<sub>X</sub>\u00a0emissions higher than their ceiling for 2010.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"APE009" "Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (CSI 003/APE 009)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/emissions-of-primary-particles-and-5> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/emissions-of-primary-particles-and-5/assessment-3> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter ?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Total emissions of primary sub-10\u00b5m particulate matter (PM<sub>10</sub>) have reduced by 24% across the EEA-33 region between 1990 and 2011, driven by a 35% reduction in emissions of the fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) fraction. Emissions of particulates between 2.5 and 10 \u00b5m have reduced by 12% over the same period; the difference of this trend to that of PM<sub>2.5</sub>\u00a0is due to significantly increased emissions in the 2.5 to 10 \u00b5m fraction from 'Road transport' and 'Agriculture' (of 20% and 6% respectively) since 1990.</li>\n<li>Of this reduction in PM<sub>10</sub>\u00a0emissions, % has taken place in the 'Energy Production and Distribution' sector due to factors including the fuel-switching from coal to natural gas for electricity generation and improvements in the performance of pollution abatement equipment installed at industrial facilities.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"APE010" "Emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe (CSI 040/APE 010)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/main-anthropogenic-air-pollutant-emissions> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/main-anthropogenic-air-pollutant-emissions/assessment> "What progress is being made in reducing emissions of the main air pollutants across Europe?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Anthropogenic emissions of the main air pollutants decreased significantly in most EEA-33 member countries between 1990 and 2012:</li>\n<ul>\n<li>Nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>X</sub>) emissions decreased by 46% (51% in the EU-28);</li>\n<li>Sulphur oxides (SO<sub>X</sub>) emissions decreased by 75% (84% in the EU-28);</li>\n<li>Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions decreased by 56% (60% in the EU-28);</li>\n<li>Ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) emissions decreased by 24% (28% in the EU-28); and</li>\n<li>Fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) emissions decreased by 35% (35% in the EU-28).</li>\n</ul>\n<li>The EU-28 as a whole did not meet its 2010 target to reduce emissions of NO<sub>X</sub>. A further reduction of 2.2% from the 2010 emissions level is required to meet the interim environmental objectives set in the European Union\u2019s 2001 National Emission Ceiling Directive (NECD).</li>\n<li>The EU-28 met its continuing obligation to maintain emissions of SO<sub>X</sub>, NH<sub>3</sub>\u00a0and NMVOC below legally binding targets as specified by the NECD. A number of EU Member States reported emissions above their NECD emission ceilings: nine for NO<sub>X</sub>, three for NH<sub>3</sub>, and one for NMVOCs. There are no emission ceilings for primary PM<sub>2.5</sub>.</li>\n<li>Three additional EEA member countries have emission ceilings for 2010 set in the Gothenburg Protocol under the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). All three countries met the SOx ceiling. Switzerland also met the ceilings for the other three pollutants. Liechtenstein exceeded the NMVOC ceiling. Norway breached two ceilings, for NH<sub>3</sub> and for NOx.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"CLIM002" "Mean precipitation (CLIM 002)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/european-precipitation-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/european-precipitation-1/assessment-1> "What is the trend in precipitation across Europe?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Precipitation trends since 1960 show an increase by up to 70\u00a0mm per decade in north-eastern and north-western Europe, in particular in winter, and a decrease by up to 90 mm per decade in some parts of southern Europe, in particular in summer.</li>\n<li>Projected changes in precipitation vary substantially across regions and seasons. Annual precipitation is generally projected to increase in northern Europe and to decrease in southern Europe. Projected decrease is the strongest in southern Europe in summer.</li>\n</ul>"@en
"CLIM005" "Storms (CLIM 005)"@en <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/storms-1> <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/storms-1/assessment-1> "What is the trend in extreme wind speeds across Europe?"@en "<ul>\n<li>Storm location, frequency and intensity show considerable decadal variability across Europe over the past century, such that no long-term trends are apparent.</li>\n<li>Recent studies on changes in winter storm tracks generally project an eastward extension of the North Atlantic storm track towards central Europe and the British isles, but this finding is not yet robust.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Climate change simulations show diverging projections on changes in the number of winter storms across Europe. However, almost all studies agree that storm intensities will increase in the future for the North Atlantic, northern, northwestern and central Europe.</li>\n</ul>"@en

Received 146 rows in 0.020 seconds.


https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/sds/key-policy-question-key-message/daviz.json

For system integrators

The following info can be used by a system developer / database administrator in order to retrieve this dataset programmatically over the web using a SPARQL client.

Are you new to Linked Data technology? visit http://linkeddata.org



semantic.eea.europa.eu/sparql

PREFIX dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> 
PREFIX rdf-syntax: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX s: <http://www.eea.europa.eu/portal_types/Specification#>
PREFIX a: <http://www.eea.europa.eu/portal_types/Assessment#>
PREFIX pq: <http://www.eea.europa.eu/portal_types/PolicyQuestion#>

SELECT DISTINCT
?code
?s_title as ?specification_name
?s as ?specification
?a as ?last_assessment
?pq_title as ?key_question
?a_key_message as ?key_message

WHERE {
  ?s dcterms:title ?s_title .
  ?s s:codes ?code .
  ?s rdf-syntax:type ?type FILTER (?type = s:Specification)
  OPTIONAL { ?s dcterms:isReplacedBy ?isReplacedBy . }
  FILTER (!bound(?isReplacedBy))

  ?s dcterms:hasPart ?a .
  ?a rdf-syntax:type ?a_type FILTER (?a_type = a:Assessment)
  ?a a:key_message ?a_key_message .
  OPTIONAL { ?a dcterms:isReplacedBy ?a_isReplacedBy . } FILTER (!bound(?a_isReplacedBy))

  ?s dcterms:hasPart ?pq .
  ?pq rdf-syntax:type ?pq_type . FILTER (?pq_type = pq:PolicyQuestion)
  ?pq dcterms:title ?pq_title .
  ?pq pq:is_key_question ?pq_is_key_question .  FILTER (?pq_is_key_question = 'True')

} ORDER BY ?code

Error when running query:

Query timeout. 


Document Actions