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PDF document icon eutrophication-of-terrestrial-ecosystems_final2.pdf — PDF document, 286 KB (293813 bytes)

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Emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe Anthropogenic emissions of the main air pollutants decreased significantly in most EEA-33 member countries between 1990 and 2013: Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions decreased by 49 % (54 % in the EU-28); Sulphur oxides (SO x ) emissions decreased by 80 % (87 % in the EU-28); Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions decreased by 57 % (59 % in the EU-28); Ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions decreased by 15 % (27 % in the EU-28); and Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) emissions decreased by 34 % (34 % in the EU-28). The EU-28 met its continuing obligation to maintain emissions of NO x , SO x , NH 3  and NMVOC below legally binding targets as specified by the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD). However, a number of individual Member States reported emissions above their NECD emission ceilings: six for NO X (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland and Luxembourg), six for NH 3 (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Netherlands and Spain) and three for NMVOCs (Denmark, Germany and Ireland). There are no emission ceilings for primary PM 2.5 . Three additional EEA member countries have emission ceilings for 2010 set in the Gothenburg Protocol under the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). Liechtenstein reported emissions above their NO x ceiling. Liechtenstein and Norway reported emissions above their NH 3 ceiling. Emissions reduction commitments for 2020 have been set under the 2012 amended Gothenburg Protocol for NO x , SO 2 , NMVOC, NH 3 , and PM 2.5 . The EU-28 as a whole is on track to meet its reduction commitments.
Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone In the EU-28 countries, the ecosystem area where acidification critical loads were exceeded decreased from 43% in 1980 to 7% in 2010 (it also decreased by 7% across all EEA member countries). There remain some areas where the EU's interim objective for reducing acidification, as defined in the National Emission Ceilings Directive, has not been met.  The EU28 ecosystem area, where the critical loads for eutrophication were exceeded, peaked at 84% in 1990 and decreased to 63% in 2010 (55% in EEA member countries). The area in exceedance is projected to further decrease to 54% in 2020 for the EU28 (48% in EEA member countries), assuming current legislation is implemented. The magnitude of the exceedances is projected to reduce considerably in most areas, except for a few 'hot spot' areas in western France and the border areas between the Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands as well as in northern Italy. Only 4% of the EU-28 ecosystem area (3% in EEA member countries) is still projected to be in exceedance of acidification critical loads in 2020 if current legislation is fully implemented. The eutrophication reduction target set in the updated EU air pollution strategy proposed by the European Commission in late 2013, will be met by 2030 if it is assumed that all maximum technically feasible reduction measures are implemented, but it will not be met by current legislation. Most of Europe's vegetation and agricultural crops are exposed to ozone levels that exceed the long term objective specified in the EU Air Quality Directive. A significant fraction is also exposed to levels above the target value threshold defined in the directive. In 2012, the agricultural area exposed to concentrations above the target value threshold increased to 27% of the total area, representing an increase compared to the previous three years. With regard to forest ozone exposure, between 2004 and 2012, 60% or more of the forest area was exposed to concentrations above the critical level set by the UNECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution.  

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