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Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community

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Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Gross Final Renewable Energy Consumption is the amount of renewable energy consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport in the Member States with actual and normalised hydro and wind power generation [1]  and expressed as a share against gross final energy consumption. The indicator is developed for measuring the contribution to the 2020 and 2030 objectives on renewable energy for the EU.   The Renewable Energy Directive (RED) [2]  commits the Union to reaching a 20% share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption [3]  by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy consumed in transport by the same year.   It sets binding national targets for renewable energy consumption by 2020 and it prescribes for each country minimum indicative trajectories in the run-up to 2020 to ensure that national 2020 targets will be met. In addition, the Directive requires Member States to adopt and publish National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) that outline the expected trajectories for the national share of RES for the years starting with 2010 and until 2020. Countries have submitted their NREAPs in 2010. They have the obligation to report biennially on national progress towards indicative RED and expected NREAP targets.   Europe 2020– the European Union’s ten-year growth strategy reaffirms the importance of the renewable energy sector for Europe. The 20 % renewable energy share in gross final consumption is one of the three headline targets for climate and sustainable energy under the strategy. The other EU-wide targets are achieving a 20 % reduction of the EU’s GHG emissions compared to 1990 and achieving a 20 % saving of the EU’s primary energy consumption compared to projections, both by 2020. Together, these represent the Union’s triple 20/20/20 objectives for climate and energy in the run-up to 2020. They are implemented through the EU’s 2009 climate and energy package and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED).   For 2030, EU leaders endorsed the following three EU-wide targets: (i)            achieving a binding minimum 40 % domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990; (ii)           achieving a binding minimum 27 % share of renewable energy consumption; and (iii)          achieving an indicative minimum 27 % improvement in energy efficiency.  [1] In accordance with accounting rules under Directive 2009/28/EC, electricity from hydro and wind needs to be normalised to smooth the effects of annual variations (hydro 15 years and wind 5 years). [2] Directive 2009/28/EC [3] Gross final energy consumption means the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to industry, transport, households, services including public services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission (cf. Art. 2f of Directive 2009/28/EC). With this, it excludes transformation losses which are included in gross inland energy consumption. In calculating a Member State's gross final energy consumption for the purpose of measuring its compliance with the targets and interim RED and NREAP trajectories, the amount of energy consumed in aviation shall, as a proportion of that Member State's gross final consumption of energy, be considered to be no more than 6.18% (4.12% for Cyprus and Malta).
Electricity production by fuel Electricity production by fuel Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite. oil. nuclear. natural and derived gas. renewables (wind. hydro. biomass and waste. solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations. The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result.
Final energy consumption intensity Final energy consumption intensity   Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, and services and agriculture. Total final energy intensity is defined as total final energy consumption (consumption of transformed energy such as electricity, publicly supplied heat, refined oil products, coke, etc, and the direct use of primary fuels such as gas or renewables, e.g. solar heat or biomass) divided by gross domestic product (GDP) at constant 2000 prices. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2000. Household energy intensity is defined as household final energy consumption divided by population. Transport energy intensity is defined as transport final energy consumption divided by GDP at constant 2000 prices. Industry energy intensity is defined as industry final energy consumption divided by industry Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. This excludes final energy consumption and gross value added from construction.  Services energy intensity is defined as services final energy consumption divided by services Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. Value added of services is the sum of 3 value added : G_H_I : Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport, storage and communication, J_K - Financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities and L_TO_P - Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons
Net Energy Import Dependency Net Energy Import Dependency The fuel sources: solid fuels, oil and gas refer to Eurostat categories: Solid fuels: Hard coal & Derivatives 2100 (sub categories used: Hard Coal 2111, Patent Fuels 2112, Hard Coke 2121) and Lignite & Derivaties 2200 (sub categories used: Brown Coal (Lignite) 2212, Brown Coal Coke 2220, Brown Coal Briquettes 2230 and Peat 2310). Data for other solid fuels sub categories is not available. Oil: Crude Oil & Feedstocks 3100 and All Petroleum Products 3200 (this includes LPG, refinery gas, motor spirit, kerosenes, naphtha, gas/diesel oil, residual fuel oil, white & industrial spirit, lubricants, bitumen, petroleum coke and other petroleum products) Gas: Natural Gas 4100. Data for other gas products is not available. EU27 net dependence on imports of solid fuels, oil, and gas as a percentage of Gross Inland Energy Consumption by country of origin. MS net (Extra-EU27) dependence on imports of the same products as a percentage of total GIEC, differentiated by intra-EU imports (from another Member State) and extra-EU imports from outside of the EU27. Estimated split of CO 2 emissions from imported fuel versus domestic fuel (for all fossil fuels). Geographical coverage: EU27 member states. No data available for Cyprus and Malta Temporal coverage: 2000-2008, Projections 2020 Data collected annually. Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/coded/info/data/coded/en/Theme9.htm Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/nrg_base.htm Official data (national total and sectoral emissions) reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and under the EU Monitoring Mechanism and EIONET. For the EU-27, these data are compiled by EEA in the European greenhouse gas inventory report: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/technical_report_2008_6/en
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