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Primary and final energy consumption in Europe

Indicator
ownership
Metadata
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{"geolocation": [{"value": "geo-2782113", "label": "Austria"}, {"value": "geo-2802361", "label": "Belgium"}, {"value": "geo-732800", "label": "Bulgaria"}, {"value": "geo-3202326", "label": "Croatia"}, {"value": "geo-146669", "label": "Cyprus"}, {"value": "geo-3077311", "label": "Czechia"}, {"value": "geo-2623032", "label": "Denmark"}, {"value": "geo-453733", "label": "Estonia"}, {"value": "geo-660013", "label": "Finland"}, {"value": "geo-3017382", "label": "France"}, {"value": "geo-2921044", "label": "Germany"}, {"value": "geo-390903", "label": "Greece"}, {"value": "geo-719819", "label": "Hungary"}, {"value": "geo-2963597", "label": "Ireland"}, {"value": "geo-3175395", "label": "Italy"}, {"value": "geo-458258", "label": "Latvia"}, {"value": "geo-597427", "label": "Lithuania"}, {"value": "geo-2960313", "label": "Luxembourg"}, {"value": "geo-2562770", "label": "Malta"}, {"value": "geo-2750405", "label": "Netherlands"}, {"value": "geo-798544", "label": "Poland"}, {"value": "geo-2264397", "label": "Portugal"}, {"value": "geo-798549", "label": "Romania"}, {"value": "geo-3057568", "label": "Slovakia"}, {"value": "geo-3190538", "label": "Slovenia"}, {"value": "geo-2510769", "label": "Spain"}, {"value": "geo-2661886", "label": "Sweden"}], "readOnly": true}
Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Driving forces
Supporting information
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "To ensure comparability with energy efficiency targets, this indicator follows the Eurostat methodology for final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) [FEC2020-2030] and primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) [PEC2020-2030]."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030) = gross inland consumption (all products total) - gross inland consumption (ambient heat (heat pumps)) - final non-energy consumption (all products total)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)=final energy consumption (all products total)-final energy consumption (ambient heat (heat pumps))+international aviation (all products total)+transformation input blast furnaces (all products total)-transformation output blast furnaces (all products total)+energy sector blast furnaces (solid fossil fuels)+energy sector blast furnaces (manufactured gases)+energy sector blast furnaces (peat and peat products)+energy sector blast furnaces (oil shale and oil sands)+energy sector blast furnaces (oil and petroleum products)+energy sector blast furnaces (Natural gas)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Data set used: 'Complete energy balances nrg_bal_c'"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Codes:"}]}, {"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "ul", "children": [{"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "FEC2020-2030 Final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)/all products"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "PEC2020-2030 Primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)/all products"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "GIC Gross inland consumption/all products"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "NRG_BF_E Energy sector \u2014 blast furnaces \u2014 energy use/all products"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "FC_NE Final non-energy consumption/all products"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "FC_TRA_E Final consumption \u2014 transport sector \u2014 energy use/renewables and biofuels"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "FC_E Final consumption \u2014 energy use/ambient heat"}]}, {"type": "li", "children": [{"text": "PPRD Primary production/ambient heat"}]}]}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Details about this methodology are available from Eurostat at:\u00a0"}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/38154/4956218/ENERGY-BALANCE-GUIDE-DRAFT-31JANUARY2019.pdf", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/38154/4956218/ENERGY-BALANCE-GUIDE-DRAFT-31JANUARY2019.pdf", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "ENERGY BALANCE GUIDE (Draft 31 January 2019)"}]}, {"text": " ."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The time series for the EU-27 was made by summing the values for each year of the 27 countries that are currently Member States, regardless of whether they were members of the EU in any given year."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Proxy data\n"}]}, {"text": "Values for 2021 are approximated and have been estimated using an array of methods and sources. This includes, in order of priority, direct consultation with Member States, official national statistics, unofficial data sets, grey literature and mathematical interpolation. The amount and quality of available data differ by country. More information can be found on the\u00a0"}, {"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "EEA\u2019s web page on FEC and PEC proxies"}]}, {"text": ". Values for 2005-2020 are compiled by Eurostat."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Methodology for gap filling"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Data gap filling is not necessary."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Policy/environmental relevance"}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/NRG_BAL_C__custom_1256841/bookmark/table?lang=en&bookmarkId=edba5989-e098-45f9-adad-706562bb731a", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/primary-and-final-energy-consumption", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Complete energy balances (NRG_BAL_C), PEC (2020-2030) and FEC (2020-2030)"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-targets-directive-and-rules/energy-efficiency-targets_en", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/eu-energy-efficiency-targets", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "EU Energy efficiency targets"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/api/SITE/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/api/SITE/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Approximated estimates for the primary and final consumption of energy in 2021 (EEA 2021 proxies on primary and final energy consumption)"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/primary-and-final-energy-consumption", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/primary-and-final-energy-consumption", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Complete energy balances (NRG_BAL_C), PEC (2020-2030) and FEC (2020-2030)"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/eu-energy-efficiency-targets", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/external/eu-energy-efficiency-targets", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "EU Energy efficiency targets"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-5", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "Approximated estimates for the primary and final consumption of energy in 2021 (EEA 2021 proxies on primary and final energy consumption)"}]}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "This indicator shows final and primary energy consumption for the EU and its 27 Member States from 2005 to 2021, and their distance to target. Underlying disaggregated data on sectoral and fuel compositions were used in the assessment discussion."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "In simplified terms, FEC represents the energy used by final consumers for all energy uses. It is the energy that reaches the final consumer\u2019s door. PEC represents the total energy demand within a country, excluding the energy products consumed for purposes other than producing useful energy (non-energy uses, e.g. oil for plastics). For example, the electricity consumed by a household counts towards FEC; the fuel burned to generate that electricity counts towards PEC."}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe);"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Percentage change compared to 2005"}]}]
[{"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Context description"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1399375464230&uri=CELEX:32012L0027", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1399375464230&uri=CELEX:32012L0027", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"text": ""}, {"type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fenergy.ec.europa.eu%2Ftopics%2Fenergy-efficiency%2Fenergy-efficiency-targets-directive-and-rules%2Fenergy-efficiency-directive_en&data=04%7C01%7CAndy.Martin%40eea.europa.eu%7C701d1a173bb64cdab9dc08da1ba5d58b%7Cbe2e7beab4934de5bbc58b4a6a235600%7C1%7C0%7C637852696316853435%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=Gh0B%2F9EkdazQwEIrzovc0wqleNO%2FjeIyMht1%2F1c00%2FY%3D&reserved=0", "target": "_blank"}}, "title": "Energy efficiency"}, "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"text": ""}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1399375464230&uri=CELEX:32012L0027", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1399375464230&uri=CELEX:32012L0027", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "Directive 2012/27/EU"}]}, {"text": "\u00a0established a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its target of decreasing energy consumption by 20% by 2020, compared with projected levels. This was amended by\u00a0"}, {"url": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv%3AOJ.L_.2018.328.01.0210.01.ENG", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv%3AOJ.L_.2018.328.01.0210.01.ENG", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "Directive (EU) 2018/2002"}]}, {"text": ", which provides a policy framework for 2030 and beyond. This regulatory framework includes an energy efficiency target for the EU for 2030 of a 32.5% reduction in energy consumption compared with projected levels, which is being revised."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The amending of the directive was part of the comprehensive\u00a0"}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/energy/topics/energy-strategy/clean-energy-all-europeans_en", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://ec.europa.eu/energy/topics/energy-strategy/clean-energy-all-europeans_en", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "clean energy for all Europeans"}]}, {"text": "\u00a0package, which aims to facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels towards cleaner energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The composition of the energy mix and the level of consumption provide an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution and the accumulation of radioactive waste, strongly depend on the types and amounts of fuels consumed, as well as on the abatement technologies applied."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Targets"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Energy efficiency target for 2020: The Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU introduced a reduction target of 20% in energy consumption (compared to projections for expected energy use in 2020). In concrete terms, this meant lowering the EU\u2019s final energy consumption to no more than 959 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and primary energy consumption to no more than 1,312 Mtoe."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Energy efficiency target for 2030: The amended Energy Efficiency Directive (EU) 2018/2002 established a headline EU energy efficiency target for 2030 of at least 32.5% (compared to projections for expected energy use in 2030). The 32.5\u2009% target for 2030 translates into final energy consumption of 846 Mtoe and/or primary energy consumption of 1,128 Mtoe in the EU-27 in 2030."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "For more information see the\u00a0"}, {"url": "https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fenergy.ec.europa.eu%2Ftopics%2Fenergy-efficiency%2Fenergy-efficiency-targets-directive-and-rules%2Fenergy-efficiency-directive_en&data=04%7C01%7CAndy.Martin%40eea.europa.eu%7C701d1a173bb64cdab9dc08da1ba5d58b%7Cbe2e7beab4934de5bbc58b4a6a235600%7C1%7C0%7C637852696316853435%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=Gh0B%2F9EkdazQwEIrzovc0wqleNO%2FjeIyMht1%2F1c00%2FY%3D&reserved=0", "data": {"link": {"external": {"target": "_blank", "external_link": "https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fenergy.ec.europa.eu%2Ftopics%2Fenergy-efficiency%2Fenergy-efficiency-targets-directive-and-rules%2Fenergy-efficiency-directive_en&data=04%7C01%7CAndy.Martin%40eea.europa.eu%7C701d1a173bb64cdab9dc08da1ba5d58b%7Cbe2e7beab4934de5bbc58b4a6a235600%7C1%7C0%7C637852696316853435%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=Gh0B%2F9EkdazQwEIrzovc0wqleNO%2FjeIyMht1%2F1c00%2FY%3D&reserved=0"}}, "title": "Energy efficiency"}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "European Commission website on the Energy Efficiency Directive."}]}, {"text": ""}]}]
1
[{"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No uncertainty has been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Data sets uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No uncertainty has been specified."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Rationale uncertainty"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No uncertainty has been specified."}]}]
[]
Workflow
Layout
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Only 7 Member States saw their FEC remain stagnant during 2021, with no country experiencing a noticeable reduction. PEC also increased in all but three Member States, with Belgium and Italy experiencing the largest increase. Greece was the only country to see a significant reduction in PEC in 2021, driven by a reduction in electricity imports and coal consumption.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "According to EEA early estimates, 20 Member States saw a significant (>1%) increase in FEC between 2020 and 2021, with the largest increases in Italy, France and Belgium. Only 7 Member States saw their FEC remain stagnant during 2021, with no country experiencing a noticeable reduction. PEC also increased in all but three Member States, with Belgium and Italy experiencing the largest increase. Greece was the only country to see a significant reduction in PEC in 2021, driven by a reduction in electricity imports and coal consumption."}]}]}, "34cebf1c-28f1-46e8-b881-7320f27fd797": {"plaintext": "In the long-term, 23 Member States have decreased their FEC between 2005 and 2021, with Greece and Spain achieving the largest reductions. Twenty-six Member States have decreased their PEC during the same time period, with Greece again the highest achiever, followed by Portugal. Latvia\u2019s PEC has remained relatively unchanged since 2005 and Poland is the only country to experience an increase. Poland\u2019s significant decrease in coal consumption was overcompensated by an increase in the consumption of gas, liquid fuels and, especially, by almost tripling the consumption of renewable energy.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "In the long-term, 23 Member States have decreased their FEC between 2005 and 2021, with Greece and Spain achieving the largest reductions. Twenty-six Member States have decreased their PEC during the same time period, with Greece again the highest achiever, followed by Portugal. Latvia\u2019s PEC has remained relatively unchanged since 2005 and Poland is the only country to experience an increase. Poland\u2019s significant decrease in coal consumption was overcompensated by an increase in the consumption of gas, liquid fuels and, especially, by almost tripling the consumption of renewable energy. 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The replacement of fossil fuels by renewables in electricity generation often reduces PEC, and the share of renewable energy in the EU has more than doubled since 2005. Other factors have influenced energy demand in Europe, such as energy saving measures, transformation improvements, economic activity and a changing climate.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Looking at the longer-term trends, reductions since 2005 have been more pronounced for PEC (-13%) than for FEC (-9%). The replacement of fossil fuels by renewables in electricity generation often reduces PEC, and the "}, {"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/ims/share-of-energy-consumption-from", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/ims/share-of-energy-consumption-from", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "share of renewable energy"}]}, {"text": " in the EU has more than doubled since 2005. Other factors have influenced energy demand in Europe, such as energy saving measures, transformation improvements, economic activity and a changing climate."}]}]}, "141cc95a-2d86-4085-a4b8-c7b4270f7c8d": {"plaintext": "", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "\n"}]}]}, "f8c0e67a-3131-4848-b631-962cdefe309c": {"plaintext": "The transport sector showed the strongest annual growth in 2021 following the lifting of restrictions on mobility, with a reported increase of 6.7% in final energy consumption compared to 2020. As industrial activity recovered in 2021, FEC in industry also grew \u2014 by 3.3% from the previous year. However, the most remarkable rebound was observed in buildings, aided by particularly cold weather. The estimated 4.8% increase in energy consumption of buildings in 2021 largely surpassed the drop in 2020 (-2.5%), taking FEC in this sector back to 2017 levels.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The transport sector showed the strongest annual growth in 2021 following the lifting of restrictions on mobility, with a reported increase of 6.7% in final energy consumption compared to 2020. As industrial activity recovered in 2021, FEC in industry also grew \u2014 by 3.3% from the previous year. However, the most remarkable rebound was observed in buildings, aided by particularly cold weather. The estimated 4.8% increase in energy consumption of buildings in 2021 largely surpassed the drop in 2020 (-2.5%), taking FEC in this sector back to 2017 levels. "}]}]}, "deb7e84d-d2c8-4491-90fa-3dc65fe02143": {"plaintext": "", "required": true, "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}], "readOnlySettings": true, "fixed": true, "@type": "slate", "instructions": {"data": "<p><br/></p>", "content-type": "text/html", "encoding": "utf8"}}, "ac3485b6-7ee9-480d-8bd9-568052db5eb7": {"plaintext": "Primary energy consumption (PEC) showed an even more pronounced increase in 2021. Estimates indicate that, between 2020 and 2021, PEC grew by a record 5.6% to a total of 1,306Mtoe. The estimated increase affected all energy sources, although it was highest for solid fossil fuels and nuclear energy, perhaps in response to the high gas prices observed in the second half of 2021. As for FEC, the absolute PEC level reached in 2021 was still under pre-pandemic levels and was the second lowest on records.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Primary energy consumption (PEC) showed an even more pronounced increase in 2021. Estimates indicate that, between 2020 and 2021, PEC grew by a record 5.6% to a total of 1,306Mtoe. The estimated increase affected all energy sources, although it was highest for solid fossil fuels and nuclear energy, perhaps in response to the high gas prices observed in the second half of 2021. As for FEC, the absolute PEC level reached in 2021 was still under pre-pandemic levels and was the second lowest on records. "}]}]}, "7790e231-35ad-4cec-8fe2-9fd3767fded4": {"plaintext": "Since 2005, FEC and PEC have decreased by an average of 0.5 and 0.8 percentage points, respectively, on an annual basis. At these rates, the EU is unlikely to meet its 2030 energy efficiency target of a reduction of 32.5% for both FEC and PEC, compared to projections of expected energy use in 2030. 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The European Commission has proposed an "}, {"url": "https://ec.europa.eu/info/files/proposal-directive-energy-efficiency-recast_en", "type": "a", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://ec.europa.eu/info/files/proposal-directive-energy-efficiency-recast_en", "target": "_self"}}}, "children": [{"text": "amendment of the Energy Efficiency Directive"}]}, {"text": " with more ambitious targets for 2030: 36% for FEC and 39% for PEC, paving the way for the overall goal of carbon neutrality by 2050."}]}]}, "9ca28dd3-1211-489a-b08b-63cff673d6b4": {"plaintext": "After an extraordinary drop in energy consumption in Europe in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the EU\u2019s final energy consumption (FEC) grew by 5% between 2020 and 2021, according to EEA early estimates. This represents the highest annual increase since full records are available (1990). The increase can be largely attributed to the economic recovery and lifting of pandemic restrictions. 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