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Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in buildings in Europe

Indicator
ownership
Metadata
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Climate action
Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Pressure
Supporting information
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Emissions from fossil fuels used in buildings (direct emissions)"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "This indicator is based on the official GHG inventories submitted by EEA member countries to the EEA, and on the GHG emissions projections submitted by EU Member States under the "}, {"data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">EU, 2018, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 1-77.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "CJDEIDC5", "uid": "gy3C6", "footnoteTitle": "EU, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action"}, "type": "zotero", "children": [{"text": "Governance Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2018/1999)"}]}, {"text": "."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Greenhouse gas inventories"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "For the preparation of their national inventories, countries use the methodologies of the "}, {"type": "i", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"data": {"footnote": "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n<div class=\"csl-bib-body\" style=\"line-height: 1.35; \">\n <div class=\"csl-entry\">IPCC, 2006, <i>2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories</i>, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hanawa, Japan.</div>\n</div>\n", "zoteroId": "4MFPSSY4", "uid": "GXYkh", "footnoteTitle": "IPCC, 2006, 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenh, Hanawa, Japan"}, "type": "zotero", "children": [{"text": "2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"text": ". Residential and tertiary buildings are included (sectors 1A4a and 1A4b of the IPCC classification)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Projected greenhouse gas emissions"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "For projected GHG emissions, information submitted by EEA member countries under the Governance Regulation is used. The projected GHG emissions referred to in the indicator are those reported under the \u2018with existing measures\u2019 (WEM) scenario and the \u2018with additional measures\u2019 (WAM) scenario."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The projected GHG emissions data include data for the entire IPCC sector 1.A.4, which includes emissions from buildings (IPCC sectors 1.A.4.a and 1.A.4.b) and from energy use in agriculture and forests (IPCC sector 1.A.4.c)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "In Figure 1, to improve comparability with past data, an adjustment factor has been applied to the projections submitted by the countries to exclude IPCC sector 1.A.4.c from the data provided. The correction factor applied is 15.02%, which is the share of sector 1.A.4.c in the total emissions of sector 1.A.4 in 2020."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "In Figure 2, to improve comparability with past data, an adjustment has been applied to the projections submitted by the countries to exclude IPCC sector 1.A.4.c from the data provided. The % change from 2020-2030 as reported by Member States in WEM and WAM scenarios has been applied to 2020 GHG emissions from buildings (1.A.4a and b) as reported by Member States in GHG inventories to calculate an adjusted 2030 value; this value is then used to calculate the % change between 2005 and 2030 that is shown on the graph."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Approximated greenhouse gas inventory"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "This indicator also uses data and estimates from the \u2018Approximated GHG inventory\u2019 for the year (X-1). \u2018Proxy\u2019 inventories are reported by Member States to the EEA and to the Commission under the Governance Regulation by 31 July of each year, X, and are calculated at an aggregate level on the basis of the national and international information available for the year (X-1)."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Proxy estimates are provided by Member States only for the entire IPCC sector 1.A.4, not-sub-sectors. Therefore, the percentage difference in emissions for year (X-1) and (X-2) of the entire 1.A.4 sector is used to estimate the value of emissions for year X for sub-sectors 1.A.4.a and 1.A.4.b from the value of emissions for year (X-1) for these sub-sectors\u2019."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"type": "b", "children": [{"text": "Emissions from electricity use in buildings (indirect emissions)"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Indirect emissions from electricity, heat and combined heat and power in residential, commercial and institutional buildings include the emissions from electricity and heat production (IPCC sector 1.A.1.a) that are allocated to buildings (IPCC sectors 1.A.4.a and 1.A.4.b) according to the end-user methodology developed by the EEA. The methodology is based on an EEA report, which is publicly available at:"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}, {"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/end-user-ghg-emissions-energy", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/end-user-ghg-emissions-energy", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/end-user-ghg-emissions-energy"}]}, {"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": " "}]}, {"type": "h4", "children": [{"text": "Methodology for gap filling"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No methodology for gap filling has been specified."}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-18", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-18", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "National emissions reported to the UNFCCC and to the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-5", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-5", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "Approximated estimates for greenhouse gas emissions"}]}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"url": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/greenhouse-gas-emission-projections-for-9", "data": {"link": {"external": {"external_link": "https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/greenhouse-gas-emission-projections-for-9", "target": "_self"}}}, "type": "a", "children": [{"text": "Member States' greenhouse gas (GHG) emission projections"}]}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "This indicator presents past and latest year GHG emissions estimates and projected GHG emissions trends for energy used in the residential and commercial sector in the European Union. Historical data include emissions from the use of fossil fuels in buildings (also called \u2018direct emissions\u2019) and emissions from the use of electricity and heat (also called \u2018indirect emissions\u2019); the latter come mainly from emissions resulting from the production of the heat and the electricity that is subsequently used in buildings. Emissions from the construction, renovation or demolition of buildings are not covered by this indicator."}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Million tonnes of CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2 "}]}, {"text": "equivalent (Mt CO"}, {"type": "sub", "children": [{"text": "2"}]}, {"text": "e);"}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Percentage"}]}]
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Climate change is one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing the world, and the warming of the climate system is unequivocal according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To prevent the most severe impacts of climate change, countries that have signed up to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have agreed to cooperate with a view to limiting the increase in global average temperature and the resulting climate change by decreasing emissions of GHG."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The buildings sector being one of the massive emitters of GHGs in Europe, the overall EU 2030 target for decreasing GHGemissions (55% below the 1990 level) and the long-term 2050 climate neutrality objective cannot be achieved if emissions from buildings are not addressed quickly and comprehensively. Tackling GHG emissions from buildings is therefore a key priority of EU climate policy. This sector is also a key priority in other regions of the world and therefore at a global level as well."}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}, {"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The indicator is directly responsive to changes in related human activities, such as actions related to energy performance in buildings, energy labelling and the eco-design of products, and actions to decarbonise the electricity and the heating/cooling sectors."}]}]
1
[{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "No uncertainties have been specified"}]}]
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Workflow
Layout
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The REPowerEU plan published by the European Commission in May 2022 \u2014 which aims to end the EU\u2019s dependence on Russian fossil fuels while tackling the climate crisis \u2014 calls for additional savings and energy efficiency gains in buildings through the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. 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These emissions result partly from the direct use of fossil fuels in buildings (e.g., oil and gas used in boilers for heating) and partly from the production of electricity and heat for use in buildings (e.g., electricity consumed by water heaters, lighting, electrical devices, cooling systems, etc).", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "The buildings sector is a key contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, representing 35% of energy-related EU emissions in 2020. These emissions result partly from the direct use of fossil fuels in buildings (e.g., oil and gas used in boilers for heating) and partly from the production of electricity and heat for use in buildings (e.g., electricity consumed by water heaters, lighting, electrical devices, cooling systems, etc)."}]}]}, "b9ecf30d-f711-429b-b79a-3610a8fe573b": {"plaintext": "Between 2005 and 2020, total GHG emissions from the EU buildings sector decreased by 35%. This trend has been driven largely by the EU decarbonisation strategy, which promotes simultaneous end-user electrification in the residential sector, decarbonisation of the electricity sector, and improvements of energy efficiency in buildings. A trend toward warmer winter temperatures, and therefore reduced winter heating needs, has also contributed to the emission reductions from buildings. These reductions have been partly offset by an increase in dwellings and by a larger average floor area in buildings. The decline in emissions observed in 2020 is partly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although estimates indicate a slight increase in emissions from fossil fuel use in buildings in 2021 compared to 2020, partly because of a colder winter and economic recovery, Member State projections suggest that the decreasing trend in emissions from buildings will continue.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Between 2005 and 2020, total GHG emissions from the EU buildings sector decreased by 35%. This trend has been driven largely by the EU decarbonisation strategy, which promotes simultaneous end-user electrification in the residential sector, decarbonisation of the electricity sector, and improvements of energy efficiency in buildings. A trend toward warmer winter temperatures, and therefore reduced winter heating needs, has also contributed to the emission reductions from buildings. These reductions have been partly offset by an increase in dwellings and by a larger average floor area in buildings. The decline in emissions observed in 2020 is partly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although estimates indicate a slight increase in emissions from fossil fuel use in buildings in 2021 compared to 2020, partly because of a colder winter and economic recovery, Member State projections suggest that the decreasing trend in emissions from buildings will continue. "}]}]}, "deb7e84d-d2c8-4491-90fa-3dc65fe02143": {"plaintext": "", "required": true, "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": ""}]}], "readOnlySettings": true, "fixed": true, "@type": "slate", "instructions": {"data": "<p><br/></p>", "content-type": "text/html", "encoding": "utf8"}}, "03d478d6-20cd-4eb6-9187-781c6eebca99": {"plaintext": "Improvements to buildings, such as better insulation and heating/cooling systems, can help reduce emissions from fossil fuel use. While often providing a lower-emitting alternative, heating systems such as heat pumps increase a building\u2019s use of electricity. Unless this electricity demand is met by the production of renewable or decarbonised energy, this can lead to a sectoral shift in emissions from the buildings to the electricity sector.", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Improvements to buildings, such as better insulation and heating/cooling systems, can help reduce emissions from fossil fuel use. While often providing a lower-emitting alternative, heating systems such as heat pumps increase a building\u2019s use of electricity. 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Malta is the only Member State where emissions increased over the period 2005-2020. In all other Member States, emissions decreased, with Denmark, Greece, Slovenia and Sweden reporting the largest decreases (from 51% to 68%) and Luxembourg, Romania and Lithuania reporting the lowest decrease (between 2% and 4%).", "@type": "slate", "value": [{"type": "p", "children": [{"text": "Historical and projected emissions from the use of fossil fuels in buildings differ significantly from one Member State to another. Malta is the only Member State where emissions increased over the period 2005-2020. 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