EU Adaptation Strategy Package
Topics: Climate change ,
In April 2013 the European Commission adopted an EU strategy on adaptation to climate change which has been welcomed by the EU Member States. The strategy aims to make Europe more climate-resilient. By taking a coherent approach and providing for improved coordination, it will enhance the preparedness and capacity of all governance levels to respond to the impacts of climate change.
EU Adaptation Strategy Package
The link address is: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/adaptation/what/documentation_en.htm
Precipitation extremes Trends in consecutive wet days and consecutive dry days Projected changes in heavy precipitation in summer and winter
Global and European sea-level rise This indicator comprises several metrics to describe past and future sea-level rise globally and in European seas. Global sea-level rise is reported because it is the second-most important metric of global climate change (after global mean surface temperature), and because it is a proxy of sea-level rise in Europe. Past sea-level trends across Europe are reported in two different ways: first, absolute sea level change based on satellite altimeter measurements that reflect primarily the contribution of global climate change to sea-level rise in Europe; second, relative sea-level change based on tide gauges that also include local land movement, which is more relevant for the development of regional adaptation strategies. The following components on observed sea-level rise are included: Change in global mean sea level (time series starting in 1880, in mm), based on a reconstruction from various data sources (since 1880) and on satellite altimeter data (since 1993) Trend in relative sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on selected European tide gauge stations (since 1970) Trend in absolute sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on satellite measurements (since 1992) In addition, this indicator informs about the contributions from various sources to the observed global sea level rise (since 1901). Finally, this indicator presents projections for sea level rise in the 21st century, both globally and for the European seas.
River flow This indicator shows the trends in monthly stream flow over more than 4 decades for locations across Europe. The indicator also shows the projected change in annual and seasonal river flow in Europe for 2071-2100 (SRES A1B scenario) compared to 1961-1990. For some selected locations, the projected change in daily average river flow for 2071-2100 compared to 1961-1990 is shown.
Snow cover Trend in spring snow cover extent over the Northern Hemisphere and in Europe Trend in March snow mass in Europe (excluding mountain areas) Projected change in Northern hemisphere spring snow cover extent
Greenland ice sheet Cumulative ice mass loss and sea-level equivalent from Greenland Yearly cumulated melt area of Greenland ice sheet
Economic Water Productivity (ECWP) of irrigated crops Water productivity can be expressed either in physical and economic terms. On this basis, the economic water productivity (i.e. linking resource input to tangible economic outcome) for irrigated crops can be estimated by the use of the following formula: Economic Water Productivity (ECWP) of irrigated crops (€ PPS/m 3 ) Economic Output crop (€ PPS) / Water Use Irrigation crop (m 3 ) Where, Economic Output crop is the production value at producer price in € PPS * (values at current prices) of a specific irrigated crop in a specified area (NUTS 2). The data currently used refer to the year 2010 and are from Eurostat economic accounts for agriculture – regional agricultural statistics. * Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is an artificial currency used by Eurostat for the common currency in which national accounts aggregates are expressed when adjusted for price level differences using purchasing power parities. Theoretically, one PPS can buy the same amount of goods and services in each country. Water Use Irrigation crop is the total water used (in m3) for the irrigation of the specific crop in the same area and for the same year (currently 2010 from the Eurostat Farm Structure Survey -FSS  ,  ). The analysis is conducted using data from the latest available year (currently 2010), while the spatial scale used is the NUTS 2 level. The ECWP has been calculated for the “main crops” irrigated in Europe, namely: cereals (excluding maize and rice), maize, rice, potatoes, sugar beets, citrus, sunflower, olives and vineyards. Some of these are of a regional interest (e.g. citrus), while some categories (e.g. olives) contain a large variety and range of products (i.e. table olives vs. olive oil) challenging the analysis.  Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings (OJ L 56, 2.3.1988, p. 1)  Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council. Regulation (EEC) No 571/88
Agrophenology Observed change in flowering date for winter wheat Projected change in dates of flowering and maturation for winter wheat
Vector-borne diseases Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi in questing I. ricinus ticks in Europe Change in distribution of Aedes albopictus in Europe Climatic suitability for the mosquitos Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in Europe Projected change in climatic conditions for Chikungunya transmission
Extreme temperatures and health Daily mortality rates in 15 European cities by apparent temperature in summer time
Floods and health Number of people affected by flooding per million population in the WHO European Region
Air pollution by ozone and health Annual mean ozone concentrations by station type Modelled change in tropospheric ozone concentrations over Europe Selection of meteorological parameters that might increase under future climate change and their impact on ozone levels
Damages from weather and climate-related events Number of natural disasters Overall and insured losses from natural disasters
Forest fires Burnt area in five southern European countries State and trend of fire danger Projected changes in fire danger
Irrigation water requirement Rate of change of the meteorological water balance Projected change in water availability for irrigation in the Mediterranean region
Water-limited crop productivity Projected changes in effective solar radiation Projected changes in water-limited crop yield Projected change in water-limited wheat production
Distribution of marine species Calanus ratio in the North Sea Annual mean number of Calanus per sample
Sea surface temperature Annual average sea surface temperature anomaly in the global ocean and in different European seas Mean annual sea surface temperature trend in European seas
Species interactions Projected spatial mismatches of the Portuguese Dappled White butterfly and its host plants
Distribution and abundance of animal species Observed latitudinal shifts of four species groups over 25 years in Britain Temporal trend of bird and butterfly community temperature index across Europe Projected impact of climate change on the potential distribution of reptiles and amphibians Projected changes in the climate niche space of the Small Tortoise shell Changes in mammalian species richness
Distribution of plant species Expected average percentage of stable area of 856 plant species for two different climate scenarios
Lake and river ice cover Observed change in duration of lake and river ice cover a) Danube River, at Budapest, 1876–2011 and b) Lake Kallavesi, Finland, 1833–2011.
River flow drought Water scarcity and drought events in Europe Projected change in minimum river flow with return period of 20 years
River floods Occurrence of major floods in Europe Projected change in river floods with a return period of 100 years
River flow Trends in monthly stream flow Projected change in average annual and seasonal river flow Projected change in daily average river flow
Global and European sea-level rise This indicator comprises several metrics to describe past and (to a limited extent) future sea-level rise globally and in Europe. Global sea-level rise is reported because it is the second-most important metric of global climate change (after global mean surface temperature), and because it is a proxy of sea-level rise in Europe. Past sea-level trends across Europe are reported in two different ways: first, absolute sea level change based on satellite altimeter measurements that reflect primarily the contribution of global climate change to sea-level rise in Europe; seconed, relative sea-level change based on tide gauges that also include local land movement, which is more relevant for the development of regional adaptation strategies. The following components are included: Change in global mean sea level (time series starting in 1880, in mm), based on a reconstruction from various data sources (since 1880) and on satellite altimeter data (since 1993) Trend in absolute sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on satellite measurements (since 1992) Trend in relative sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on selected European tide gauge stations (since 1970) In addition, this indicator informs about the contributions from various sources to the observed global sea level rise (since 1972). Finally, this indicator presents projections for sea level rise in the 21st century, both globally and for the European seas.
Arctic and Baltic Sea ice Trend in Arctic sea ice extent in March and September Maximum ice cover extent in the Baltic Sea Projected changes in Nothern Hemisphere sea ice extent
Permafrost Observed permafrost temperatures from selected boreholes in European mountains Comparison of active layer thickness from boreholes in the Alps, Norway and Svalbard Projected change in Northern Hemisphere near-surface permafrost area
Glaciers Cumulative specific net mass balance of European glaciers Projected changes in the volume of all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the European glaciated regions
Snow cover Trend in autumn, winter and spring snow cover extent over the Northern Hemisphere Trend in March snow mass in Europe (excluding mountain areas) Projected changes in annual snowfall days
Storms Trends in the extreme wind speeds (95th percentile of daily maximum wind speed) Projected changes in extreme wind speed (98th percentile of daily maximum wind speed) based on GCM and RCM ensemble
Mean precipitation Trends in annual precipitation across Europe Projected changes in annual and summer precipitation
Precipitation extremes Trends in consecutive wet days and consecutive dry days Projected changes in 20-year maximum precipitation in summer and winter
Greenland ice sheet Estimated changes of the ice mass in Greenland Yearly cumulated melt area of Greenland ice sheet
Global and European temperature This indicator shows absolute changes and rates of change in average near-surface temperature for the globe and for a region covering Europe. Near-surface air temperature gives one of the clearest and most consistent signals of global and regional climate change, especially in recent decades. It has been measured for many decades or even centuries at some locations and a dense network of stations across the globe, and especially in Europe, provide regular monitoring of temperature, using standardised measurements, quality control and homogeneity procedures. This indicator provides guidance for the following policy-relevant questions: Will the global average temperature increase stay within the UNFCCC policy target of 2.0°C above pre-industrial levels? Will the rate of global average temperature increase stay below the indicative proposed target of 0.2°C increase per decade? Global average annual temperature deviations, ‘anomalies’, are discussed relative to a ‘pre-industrial’ period between 1850 and 1899 (beginning of instrumental temperature records). During this time, anthropogenic greenhouse gases from the industrial revolution (between 1750 and 1850) are considered to have a relatively small influence on climate compared to natural influences. However it should be noted that owing to earlier changes in the climate due to internal and forced natural variability there was not one single pre-industrial climate and it is not clear that there is a rigorous scientific definition of the term ‘pre-industrial climate’. Temperature changes also influence other aspects of the climate system which can impact on human activities, including sea level, intensity and frequency of floods and droughts, biota and food productivity and infectious diseases. In addition to the global average target, seasonal variations and spatial distributions of temperature change are important, for example to understand the risks that current climate poses to human and natural systems and to assess how these may be impacted by future climate change.
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