Based on company-level data reported under Article 19 of Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 (EU F-gas Regulation), the indicator presents an assessment of the progress on EU HFC phase-down made under both EU legislation and the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
Methodology for indicator calculation
For progress under the EU HFC phase-down, placing on the market (POM) is calculated as follows for all HFCs and mixtures containing HFCs, with physical mass converted into CO2 equivalents using the GWPs of the IPCC’s AR4:
quota-relevant POM = quota-relevant physical POM + issued authorisations + imported RACHP equipment, where not covered by quota authorisations held by the importer, and where:
- quota-relevant physical POM (relevant starting 2015) = physical POM as given in section 4M of the reporting questionnaire - exempted quantities as given in section 5J of the reporting questionnaire;
- issued authorisations (relevant starting 2015) are those given in section 9A of the reporting questionnaire;
- imported RACHP equipment, where not covered by quota authorisations held by the importer (relevant starting 2017) = calculated amount of imported HFCs in need of authorisation to use HFC quota (as given in section 13D of the reporting questionnaire) - available authorisations, including delegations of authorisations (as given in section 13A of the reporting questionnaire).
Under the Montreal Protocol, the HFC phase-down is based on reducing HFC consumption. Consumption is calculated as production + bulk imports - bulk exports - destruction - feedstock use of HFCs.
All information provided to the European Commission and the EEA on transactions of F-gases in the EU is treated as strictly confidential. The Commission and the EEA have established procedures to ensure that all of the data relating to individual companies will be kept strictly confidential. No company-specific information is disclosed to the public; all company data are aggregated before publication. These procedures limit the release of data that might significantly rely on reports from less than three company groups. To this end, company groups that contribute less than 5 % do not count towards the 'three-company rule'. Concerns over confidentiality can be addressed to the European Commission or to the entity designated by the European Commission.
Methodology for gap filling
No methodology references available.
Justification for indicator selection
Emissions of F-gases contribute to global warming and are included in the basket of greenhouse gases addressed in the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. F-gases presently account for around 3 % of overall greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-28. At European level, policy measures have been implemented since 2006 to reduce emissions by:
- targeting the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing fluorinated gases;
- encouraging increased reclamation of used gases;
- banning the use of certain high-GWP gases in some applications for which more environmentally superior alternatives are available.
Furthermore, phase-down schemes for the use of HFCs were agreed within the EU in 2014 and globally under the Montreal Protocol in 2016.
- No rationale references available.
Fluorinated gases contribute to global warming, and emissions of fluorinated gases, which are not covered by the Montreal Protocol, are included under the UNFCCC. Since 2015, emission reporting for the full time series since 1990 has been carried out in accordance with the 2006 IPCC guidelines and uses the global warming potentials (GWPs) of the Fourth IPCC Assessment Report (AR4). For a list of fluorinated gases reportable under the UNFCCC, please refer to the indicator definition. Companies reporting under the 'old' EU F-gas Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 842/2006, applicable from 2007-2014) and under the revised, ‘new’, F-gas Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, applicable since 2015) must cover an extended list of fluorinated gases.
At European level, two key legislative instruments focus on fluorinated gases:
- Regulation No 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation No 842/2006 (F-gas Regulation);
- Directive 2006/40/EC relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles (MAC Directive).
The F-gas Regulation takes several approaches to reducing F-gas emissions:
- It aims to improve the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing F-gases. Related measures comprise labelling equipment containing fluorinated gases, the training and certification of personnel and companies that handle these types of gases, the containment of gases within equipment and the proper recovery of gases from equipment that is no longer in use.
- It promotes avoiding the use of fluorinated gases in applications for which more environmentally superior alternatives are cost effective. Related measures include restrictions on the use and marketing of fluorinated gases in such cases.
- Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected to result from a new measure that will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down').
The MAC Directive requires the gradual phase-out of F-gases with a GWP of >150 in new systems in the period 2011-2017 in the EU.
At global level, the Montreal Protocol was amended to regulate HFCs in October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda (the 'Kigali Amendment'). Both developed and developing countries have taken on mandatory commitments to reduce the production and consumption of HFCs in the next three decades. Under the amended protocol, for the EU and other developed countries, HFC consumption is limited to 90 % of the baseline starting in 2019, with further reduction steps planned until 15 % of the baseline is reached from 2036 onwards.
The 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 maintains many measures of the 'old' F-Gas Regulation 842/2006, in particular related to leak prevention, recovery, certification of technicians and selected restrictions on the use and marketing of F-gases. Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected from a new measure, which will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down'). Reductions are also expected from bans of F-gases with a high GWP.
Under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, no separate targets for F-gases have been specified.
In the EU context, the revised, 'new', F-gas Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 517/2014) aims to reduce emissions by two thirds of the 2010 level by 2030.
Related policy documents
- Directive 2006/40/EC. Directive 2006/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC.
- EU 2017/1541 Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol. COUNCIL DECISION (EU) 2017/1541 of 17 July 2017 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Union, of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.
- Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases. The 'old' F-gases regulation follows two tracks of action: Improving the prevention of leaks from equipment containing F-gases. Measures comprise: containment of gases and proper recovery of equipment; training and certification of personnel and of companies handling these gases; labeling of equipment containing F-gases; reporting on imports, exports and production of F-gases. Avoiding F-gases in some applications where environmentally superior alternatives are cost-effective. Measures include restrictions on the marketing and use of certain products and equipment containing F-gases. The Regulation has been supplemented by 10 implementing acts or 'Commission Regulations' (see Documentation tab above). Furthermore, reporting provisions have been introduced to facilitate monitoring of the Regulation's measures and ensure that its objectives are being met.
- Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006. The 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 maintains many measures of the 'old' F-Gas Regulation 842/2006, in particular related to leak prevention, recovery, certification of technicians and selected restrictions on the use and marketing of F-gases. Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected from a new measure, which will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down'). Reductions are also expected from bans of F-gases with a high GWP.
- The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Data sets uncertainty