Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation in Europe

The greenhouse gas emission intensity of power generation in the EU has been continuously decreasing over the last three decades: generating 1 kilowatt hour in 2020 emitted, on average, half as much CO2 as in 1990. Policies have been playing an important role in driving this shift towards less carbon-intensive energy sources, in particular those addressing climate change, renewable energy supply and efficient energy use, and industrial emissions. The Covid-19 pandemic hardly affected electricity use in 2020, but the continued growth of renewable electricity caused a further drop in the greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation.

Published: ‒ 25min read

Figure 1. Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation by country
DateMember StateGreenhouse gas emission (GHG) intensityIndicative level - lowIndicative level - high
2020Greece479.2
2020Bulgaria410.4
2020Croatia133.8
2020Portugal198.4
2020France51.1
2020Norway
2020Netherlands328.4
2020Estonia774.9
2020Iceland
2020Germany311
2020Lithuania45.4
2020Poland709.8
2020Turkey
2020Switzerland
2020Sweden8.8
2020Italy213.4
2020Ireland278.6
2020Czechia436.6
2020United Kingdom
2020Belgium161
2020Austria82.4
2020EU-27230.7265265
2020Latvia106.5
2020Malta379
2020Hungary216.4
2020Finland68.6
2020Slovakia101.7
2030EU-27110118
2020Denmark109
2020Slovenia217.8
2020Spain156.4
2020Luxembourg58.5
2020Romania299.5
2020Cyprus620.9
1990Austria233
1990Belgium358
1990Bulgaria661
1990Croatia333
1990Cyprus852
1990Czechia727
1990Denmark686
1990EU-27501
1990EU-27 + UK524
1990Estonia853
1990Finland195
1990France206
1990Germany664
1990Greece1189
1990Hungary437
1990Iceland3
1990Ireland769
1990Italy562
1990Latvia59
1990Lithuania160
1990Luxembourg431
1990Malta1605
1990Netherlands612
1990Norway
1990Poland1263
1990Portugal520
1990Romania769
1990Slovakia466
1990Slovenia471
1990Spain449
1990Sweden10
1990Turkey
1990United Kingdom681
1991Austria242
1991Belgium364
1991Bulgaria449
1991Croatia198
1991Cyprus840
1991Czechia721
1991Denmark707
1991EU-27491
1991EU-27 + UK513
1991Estonia829
1991Finland175
1991France173
1991Germany668
1991Greece1131
1991Hungary445
1991Iceland3
1991Ireland768
1991Italy536
1991Latvia113
1991Lithuania168
1991Luxembourg462
1991Malta1131
1991Netherlands589
1991Norway
1991Poland1236
1991Portugal526
1991Romania904
1991Slovakia411
1991Slovenia367
1991Spain444
1991Sweden15
1991Turkey
1991United Kingdom668
1992Austria183
1992Belgium347
1992Bulgaria630
1992Croatia297
1992Cyprus839
1992Czechia707
1992Denmark687
1992EU-27478
1992EU-27 + UK499
1992Estonia816
1992Finland167
1992France174
1992Germany640
1992Greece1153
1992Hungary475
1992Iceland3
1992Ireland768
1992Italy525
1992Latvia101
1992Lithuania88
1992Luxembourg528
1992Malta1035
1992Netherlands577
1992Norway
1992Poland1199
1992Portugal621
1992Romania586
1992Slovakia345
1992Slovenia431
1992Spain485
1992Sweden18
1992Turkey
1992United Kingdom638
1993Austria174
1993Belgium357
1993Bulgaria696
1993Croatia329
1993Cyprus839
1993Czechia743
1993Denmark656
1993EU-27459
1993EU-27 + UK475
1993Estonia769
1993Finland199
1993France161
1993Germany631
1993Greece1119
1993Hungary473
1993Iceland2
1993Ireland752
1993Italy518
1993Latvia104
1993Lithuania65
1993Luxembourg578
1993Malta1407
1993Netherlands581
1993Norway
1993Poland1132
1993Portugal544
1993Romania666
1993Slovakia206
1993Slovenia424
1993Spain458
1993Sweden21
1993Turkey
1993United Kingdom577
1994Austria190
1994Belgium366
1994Bulgaria607
1994Croatia221
1994Cyprus844
1994Czechia757
1994Denmark648
1994EU-27456
1994EU-27 + UK468
1994Estonia1122
1994Finland258
1994France148
1994Germany626
1994Greece1101
1994Hungary470
1994Iceland2
1994Ireland740
1994Italy512
1994Latvia104
1994Lithuania97
1994Luxembourg438
1994Malta1179
1994Netherlands589
1994Norway
1994Poland1131
1994Portugal506
1994Romania653
1994Slovakia192
1994Slovenia392
1994Spain450
1994Sweden25
1994Turkey
1994United Kingdom548
1995Austria203
1995Belgium351
1995Bulgaria570
1995Croatia256
1995Cyprus834
1995Czechia763
1995Denmark617
1995EU-27445
1995EU-27 + UK457
1995Estonia1208
1995Finland238
1995France134
1995Germany610
1995Greece1042
1995Hungary476
1995Iceland2
1995Ireland748
1995Italy542
1995Latvia104
1995Lithuania55
1995Luxembourg956
1995Malta978
1995Netherlands553
1995Norway
1995Poland984
1995Portugal574
1995Romania581
1995Slovakia195
1995Slovenia398
1995Spain496
1995Sweden22
1995Turkey
1995United Kingdom532
1996Austria208
1996Belgium324
1996Bulgaria541
1996Croatia198
1996Cyprus845
1996Czechia769
1996Denmark638
1996EU-27432
1996EU-27 + UK444
1996Estonia1179
1996Finland286
1996France134
1996Germany580
1996Greece991
1996Hungary474
1996Iceland1
1996Ireland734
1996Italy521
1996Latvia167
1996Lithuania91
1996Luxembourg929
1996Malta997
1996Netherlands525
1996Norway
1996Poland971
1996Portugal437
1996Romania588
1996Slovakia209
1996Slovenia360
1996Spain388
1996Sweden47
1996Turkey
1996United Kingdom518
1997Austria186
1997Belgium295
1997Bulgaria552
1997Croatia281
1997Cyprus854
1997Czechia717
1997Denmark586
1997EU-27420
1997EU-27 + UK429
1997Estonia1147
1997Finland254
1997France131
1997Germany566
1997Greece1046
1997Hungary471
1997Iceland1
1997Ireland739
1997Italy512
1997Latvia111
1997Lithuania47
1997Luxembourg494
1997Malta959
1997Netherlands520
1997Norway
1997Poland962
1997Portugal467
1997Romania460
1997Slovakia209
1997Slovenia379
1997Spain428
1997Sweden20
1997Turkey
1997United Kingdom487
1998Austria160
1998Belgium313
1998Bulgaria566
1998Croatia315
1998Cyprus856
1998Czechia729
1998Denmark549
1998EU-27420
1998EU-27 + UK430
1998Estonia1140
1998Finland205
1998France156
1998Germany569
1998Greece1034
1998Hungary462
1998Iceland
1998Ireland716
1998Italy513
1998Latvia96
1998Lithuania103
1998Luxembourg345
1998Malta954
1998Netherlands506
1998Norway
1998Poland938
1998Portugal475
1998Romania405
1998Slovakia208
1998Slovenia391
1998Spain425
1998Sweden21
1998Turkey
1998United Kingdom485
1999Austria164
1999Belgium259
1999Bulgaria516
1999Croatia277
1999Cyprus869
1999Czechia664
1999Denmark509
1999EU-27410
1999EU-27 + UK417
1999Estonia1132
1999Finland204
1999France112
1999Germany550
1999Greece979
1999Hungary467
1999Iceland
1999Ireland719
1999Italy495
1999Latvia115
1999Lithuania110
1999Luxembourg464
1999Malta925
1999Netherlands501
1999Norway
1999Poland935
1999Portugal577
1999Romania399
1999Slovakia220
1999Slovenia344
1999Spain501
1999Sweden21
1999Turkey
1999United Kingdom455
2000Austria156
2000Belgium269
2000Bulgaria485
2000Croatia278
2000Cyprus849
2000Czechia687
2000Denmark463
2000EU-27394
2000EU-27 + UK406
2000Estonia1077
2000Finland159
2000France63
2000Germany558
2000Greece975
2000Hungary460
2000Iceland1
2000Ireland674
2000Italy397
2000Latvia117
2000Lithuania93
2000Luxembourg93
2000Malta839
2000Netherlands494
2000Norway
2000Poland926
2000Portugal484
2000Romania455
2000Slovakia210
2000Slovenia354
2000Spain467
2000Sweden17
2000Turkey
2000United Kingdom480
2001Austria163
2001Belgium257
2001Bulgaria532
2001Croatia296
2001Cyprus787
2001Czechia688
2001Denmark468
2001EU-27389
2001EU-27 + UK403
2001Estonia1035
2001Finland204
2001France43
2001Germany573
2001Greece984
2001Hungary445
2001Iceland1
2001Ireland694
2001Italy385
2001Latvia116
2001Lithuania79
2001Luxembourg164
2001Malta1004
2001Netherlands520
2001Norway
2001Poland918
2001Portugal461
2001Romania453
2001Slovakia217
2001Slovenia383
2001Spain417
2001Sweden19
2001Turkey
2001United Kingdom499
2002Austria152
2002Belgium263
2002Bulgaria491
2002Croatia353
2002Cyprus767
2002Czechia660
2002Denmark460
2002EU-27394
2002EU-27 + UK407
2002Estonia1017
2002Finland227
2002France53
2002Germany558
2002Greece956
2002Hungary434
2002Iceland1
2002Ireland650
2002Italy408
2002Latvia123
2002Lithuania66
2002Luxembourg274
2002Malta957
2002Netherlands501
2002Norway
2002Poland917
2002Portugal539
2002Romania445
2002Slovakia203
2002Slovenia388
2002Spain469
2002Sweden24
2002Turkey
2002United Kingdom489
2003Austria204
2003Belgium178
2003Bulgaria533
2003Croatia384
2003Cyprus774
2003Czechia595
2003Denmark497
2003EU-27391
2003EU-27 + UK407
2003Estonia998
2003Finland287
2003France59
2003Germany499
2003Greece914
2003Hungary480
2003Iceland1
2003Ireland618
2003Italy445
2003Latvia130
2003Lithuania60
2003Luxembourg247
2003Malta969
2003Netherlands509
2003Norway
2003Poland929
2003Portugal439
2003Romania512
2003Slovakia220
2003Slovenia385
2003Spain413
2003Sweden37
2003Turkey
2003United Kingdom501
2004Austria185
2004Belgium-17
2004Bulgaria540
2004Croatia279
2004Cyprus782
2004Czechia576
2004Denmark430
2004EU-27380
2004EU-27 + UK395
2004Estonia1012
2004Finland234
2004France55
2004Germany510
2004Greece920
2004Hungary439
2004Iceland1
2004Ireland595
2004Italy417
2004Latvia92
2004Lithuania63
2004Luxembourg267
2004Malta935
2004Netherlands499
2004Norway
2004Poland906
2004Portugal484
2004Romania441
2004Slovakia217
2004Slovenia363
2004Spain423
2004Sweden21
2004Turkey
2004United Kingdom506
2005Austria179
2005Belgium228
2005Bulgaria497
2005Croatia294
2005Cyprus800
2005Czechia606
2005Denmark385
2005EU-27380
2005EU-27 + UK394
2005Estonia995
2005Finland147
2005France83
2005Germany510
2005Greece915
2005Hungary363
2005Iceland1
2005Ireland601
2005Italy399
2005Latvia86
2005Lithuania98
2005Luxembourg263
2005Malta884
2005Netherlands486
2005Norway
2005Poland891
2005Portugal535
2005Romania392
2005Slovakia194
2005Slovenia355
2005Spain440
2005Sweden17
2005Turkey
2005United Kingdom497
2006Austria174
2006Belgium147
2006Bulgaria485
2006Croatia304
2006Cyprus793
2006Czechia599
2006Denmark481
2006EU-27378
2006EU-27 + UK394
2006Estonia964
2006Finland245
2006France76
2006Germany504
2006Greece854
2006Hungary366
2006Iceland1
2006Ireland552
2006Italy391
2006Latvia109
2006Lithuania98
2006Luxembourg264
2006Malta885
2006Netherlands482
2006Norway
2006Poland905
2006Portugal450
2006Romania415
2006Slovakia185
2006Slovenia368
2006Spain398
2006Sweden19
2006Turkey
2006United Kingdom520
2007Austria160
2007Belgium244
2007Bulgaria608
2007Croatia389
2007Cyprus796
2007Czechia607
2007Denmark445
2007EU-27385
2007EU-27 + UK399
2007Estonia1004
2007Finland220
2007France91
2007Germany520
2007Greece880
2007Hungary364
2007Iceland2
2007Ireland517
2007Italy383
2007Latvia103
2007Lithuania92
2007Luxembourg263
2007Malta887
2007Netherlands487
2007Norway
2007Poland893
2007Portugal421
2007Romania464
2007Slovakia186
2007Slovenia392
2007Spain411
2007Sweden17
2007Turkey
2007United Kingdom508
2008Austria146
2008Belgium241
2008Bulgaria572
2008Croatia336
2008Cyprus793
2008Czechia595
2008Denmark417
2008EU-27363
2008EU-27 + UK379
2008Estonia991
2008Finland161
2008France81
2008Germany490
2008Greece870
2008Hungary353
2008Iceland1
2008Ireland494
2008Italy373
2008Latvia111
2008Lithuania76
2008Luxembourg234
2008Malta862
2008Netherlands480
2008Norway
2008Poland877
2008Portugal416
2008Romania481
2008Slovakia189
2008Slovenia347
2008Spain348
2008Sweden17
2008Turkey
2008United Kingdom502
2009Austria131
2009Belgium214
2009Bulgaria533
2009Croatia263
2009Cyprus776
2009Czechia568
2009Denmark418
2009EU-27349
2009EU-27 + UK362
2009Estonia953
2009Finland176
2009France78
2009Germany487
2009Greece854
2009Hungary310
2009Iceland
2009Ireland474
2009Italy355
2009Latvia97
2009Lithuania78
2009Luxembourg275
2009Malta863
2009Netherlands447
2009Norway
2009Poland857
2009Portugal393
2009Romania377
2009Slovakia167
2009Slovenia333
2009Spain318
2009Sweden17
2009Turkey
2009United Kingdom456
2010Austria153
2010Belgium161
2010Bulgaria534
2010Croatia204
2010Cyprus735
2010Czechia557
2010Denmark373
2010EU-27334
2010EU-27 + UK349
2010Estonia948
2010Finland215
2010France77
2010Germany471
2010Greece875
2010Hungary306
2010Iceland1
2010Ireland485
2010Italy339
2010Latvia121
2010Lithuania308
2010Luxembourg228
2010Malta884
2010Netherlands442
2010Norway
2010Poland850
2010Portugal280
2010Romania301
2010Slovakia142
2010Slovenia334
2010Spain257
2010Sweden23
2010Turkey
2010United Kingdom463
2011Austria160
2011Belgium190
2011Bulgaria587
2011Croatia295
2011Cyprus759
2011Czechia547
2011Denmark336
2011EU-27341
2011EU-27 + UK352
2011Estonia963
2011Finland173
2011France66
2011Germany478
2011Greece883
2011Hungary315
2011Iceland
2011Ireland456
2011Italy328
2011Latvia131
2011Lithuania261
2011Luxembourg230
2011Malta879
2011Netherlands430
2011Norway
2011Poland852
2011Portugal333
2011Romania390
2011Slovakia152
2011Slovenia343
2011Spain320
2011Sweden16
2011Turkey
2011United Kingdom446
2012Austria116
2012Belgium149
2012Bulgaria528
2012Croatia280
2012Cyprus757
2012Czechia510
2012Denmark282
2012EU-27337
2012EU-27 + UK354
2012Estonia905
2012Finland124
2012France71
2012Germany483
2012Greece869
2012Hungary320
2012Iceland
2012Ireland487
2012Italy312
2012Latvia90
2012Lithuania269
2012Luxembourg238
2012Malta883
2012Netherlands456
2012Norway
2012Poland828
2012Portugal397
2012Romania449
2012Slovakia150
2012Slovenia335
2012Spain333
2012Sweden11
2012Turkey
2012United Kingdom494
2013Austria106
2013Belgium75
2013Bulgaria485
2013Croatia198
2013Cyprus666
2013Czechia478
2013Denmark317
2013EU-27322
2013EU-27 + UK336
2013Estonia963
2013Finland158
2013France71
2013Germany489
2013Greece808
2013Hungary288
2013Iceland
2013Ireland460
2013Italy273
2013Latvia128
2013Lithuania199
2013Luxembourg189
2013Malta731
2013Netherlands471
2013Norway
2013Poland828
2013Portugal318
2013Romania291
2013Slovakia131
2013Slovenia311
2013Spain270
2013Sweden11
2013Turkey
2013United Kingdom459
2014Austria92
2014Belgium169
2014Bulgaria479
2014Croatia168
2014Cyprus682
2014Czechia481
2014Denmark277
2014EU-27312
2014EU-27 + UK323
2014Estonia967
2014Finland138
2014France53
2014Germany479
2014Greece846
2014Hungary273
2014Iceland
2014Ireland450
2014Italy258
2014Latvia127
2014Lithuania179
2014Luxembourg198
2014Malta715
2014Netherlands449
2014Norway
2014Poland816
2014Portugal299
2014Romania268
2014Slovakia118
2014Slovenia218
2014Spain280
2014Sweden9
2014Turkey
2014United Kingdom416
2015Austria107
2015Belgium136
2015Bulgaria487
2015Croatia203
2015Cyprus670
2015Czechia493
2015Denmark204
2015EU-27313
2015EU-27 + UK318
2015Estonia949
2015Finland99
2015France54
2015Germany448
2015Greece739
2015Hungary274
2015Iceland
2015Ireland437
2015Italy284
2015Latvia146
2015Lithuania186
2015Luxembourg137
2015Malta654
2015Netherlands506
2015Norway
2015Poland792
2015Portugal364
2015Romania294
2015Slovakia126
2015Slovenia256
2015Spain319
2015Sweden10
2015Turkey
2015United Kingdom366
2016Austria94
2016Belgium170
2016Bulgaria467
2016Croatia204
2016Cyprus679
2016Czechia503
2016Denmark236
2016EU-27302
2016EU-27 + UK301
2016Estonia912
2016Finland103
2016France60
2016Germany445
2016Greece622
2016Hungary263
2016Iceland
2016Ireland429
2016Italy263
2016Latvia129
2016Lithuania143
2016Luxembourg71
2016Malta653
2016Netherlands487
2016Norway
2016Poland786
2016Portugal296
2016Romania308
2016Slovakia118
2016Slovenia256
2016Spain267
2016Sweden10
2016Turkey
2016United Kingdom288
2017Austria103
2017Belgium179
2017Bulgaria499
2017Croatia188
2017Cyprus661
2017Czechia472
2017Denmark179
2017EU-27301
2017EU-27 + UK297
2017Estonia902
2017Finland93
2017France69
2017Germany413
2017Greece657
2017Hungary266
2017Iceland
2017Ireland399
2017Italy265
2017Latvia75
2017Lithuania84
2017Luxembourg64
2017Malta435
2017Netherlands460
2017Norway
2017Poland778
2017Portugal363
2017Romania326
2017Slovakia113
2017Slovenia254
2017Spain306
2017Sweden10
2017Turkey
2017United Kingdom255
2018Austria100
2018Belgium207
2018Bulgaria427
2018Croatia130
2018Cyprus664
2018Czechia465
2018Denmark193
2018EU-27288
2018EU-27 + UK284
2018Estonia874
2018Finland107
2018France58
2018Germany404
2018Greece654
2018Hungary251
2018Iceland
2018Ireland353
2018Italy249
2018Latvia146
2018Lithuania54
2018Luxembourg65
2018Malta356
2018Netherlands440
2018Norway
2018Poland784
2018Portugal310
2018Romania313
2018Slovakia136
2018Slovenia241
2018Spain276
2018Sweden11
2018Turkey
2018United Kingdom242
2019Austria92
2019Belgium174
2019Bulgaria427
2019Croatia163
2019Cyprus642
2019Czechia433
2019Denmark123
2019EU-27253
2019EU-27 + UK250
2019Estonia733
2019Finland84
2019France56
2019Germany344
2019Greece606
2019Hungary227
2019Iceland
2019Ireland316
2019Italy234
2019Latvia160
2019Lithuania72
2019Luxembourg73
2019Malta357
2019Netherlands392
2019Norway
2019Poland744
2019Portugal255
2019Romania289
2019Slovakia122
2019Slovenia238
2019Spain210
2019Sweden10
2019Turkey
2019United Kingdom225

The EU electricity sector is expected to provide one of the most significant contributions to climate mitigation by 2030 and be a cornerstone for the Union to reach net climate neutrality by 2050, according to recent scenarios. For that to happen, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the sector needs to fall drastically this decade.

In 2020, the sector was 54% less GHG intensive than in 1990 and 9% less than in 2019, according to preliminary estimates. The Covid-19 pandemic caused a significant disturbance to society throughout 2020. The resulting crisis led to a strong reduction in economic activity across most sectors, especially transport, and demanded changes to everyday life. Despite that, electricity generation and use dropped by just 4%, compared with 2019. Improvements in the GHG emission intensity of the sector thus occurred against the backdrop of a 9% increase in renewable energy generation in 2020, while energy generated from non-renewable sources also declined in the context of robust carbon price signals coming from the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.

Until 2010, the increased efficiencies of transformation from fossil fuels to electricity played a role in decreasing carbon intensities, spurred also by the need to comply with emission limit values set under industrial emissions legislation, such as the Large Combustion Plants Directive 2001/80/EC. Since 2010, the decrease has been almost exclusively because of the transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels in electricity generation, with prices for emission allowances under the EU Emission Trading Scheme increasing in relevance, especially since 2019.

If the observed trend were to continue, electricity generation could be fully decarbonised in the EU by around 2050. Such a decrease would be consistent with the EU’s target to reduce net greenhouse gases by 55% in 2030 (compared with 1990) and to reach carbon neutrality in 2050. To make that happen, additional policies and measures are needed to significantly improve resource and energy efficiency and to step up the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

Figure 2. Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation by country
DateMember StateGreenhouse gas emission (GHG) intensityIndicative level - lowIndicative level - high
2020Greece479.2
2020Bulgaria410.4
2020Croatia133.8
2020Portugal198.4
2020France51.1
2020Norway
2020Netherlands328.4
2020Estonia774.9
2020Iceland
2020Germany311
2020Lithuania45.4
2020Poland709.8
2020Turkey
2020Switzerland
2020Sweden8.8
2020Italy213.4
2020Ireland278.6
2020Czechia436.6
2020United Kingdom
2020Belgium161
2020Austria82.4
2020EU-27230.7265265
2020Latvia106.5
2020Malta379
2020Hungary216.4
2020Finland68.6
2020Slovakia101.7
2030EU-27110118
2020Denmark109
2020Slovenia217.8
2020Spain156.4
2020Luxembourg58.5
2020Romania299.5
2020Cyprus620.9
1990Austria233
1990Belgium358
1990Bulgaria661
1990Croatia333
1990Cyprus852
1990Czechia727
1990Denmark686
1990EU-27501
1990EU-27 + UK524
1990Estonia853
1990Finland195
1990France206
1990Germany664
1990Greece1189
1990Hungary437
1990Iceland3
1990Ireland769
1990Italy562
1990Latvia59
1990Lithuania160
1990Luxembourg431
1990Malta1605
1990Netherlands612
1990Norway
1990Poland1263
1990Portugal520
1990Romania769
1990Slovakia466
1990Slovenia471
1990Spain449
1990Sweden10
1990Turkey
1990United Kingdom681
1991Austria242
1991Belgium364
1991Bulgaria449
1991Croatia198
1991Cyprus840
1991Czechia721
1991Denmark707
1991EU-27491
1991EU-27 + UK513
1991Estonia829
1991Finland175
1991France173
1991Germany668
1991Greece1131
1991Hungary445
1991Iceland3
1991Ireland768
1991Italy536
1991Latvia113
1991Lithuania168
1991Luxembourg462
1991Malta1131
1991Netherlands589
1991Norway
1991Poland1236
1991Portugal526
1991Romania904
1991Slovakia411
1991Slovenia367
1991Spain444
1991Sweden15
1991Turkey
1991United Kingdom668
1992Austria183
1992Belgium347
1992Bulgaria630
1992Croatia297
1992Cyprus839
1992Czechia707
1992Denmark687
1992EU-27478
1992EU-27 + UK499
1992Estonia816
1992Finland167
1992France174
1992Germany640
1992Greece1153
1992Hungary475
1992Iceland3
1992Ireland768
1992Italy525
1992Latvia101
1992Lithuania88
1992Luxembourg528
1992Malta1035
1992Netherlands577
1992Norway
1992Poland1199
1992Portugal621
1992Romania586
1992Slovakia345
1992Slovenia431
1992Spain485
1992Sweden18
1992Turkey
1992United Kingdom638
1993Austria174
1993Belgium357
1993Bulgaria696
1993Croatia329
1993Cyprus839
1993Czechia743
1993Denmark656
1993EU-27459
1993EU-27 + UK475
1993Estonia769
1993Finland199
1993France161
1993Germany631
1993Greece1119
1993Hungary473
1993Iceland2
1993Ireland752
1993Italy518
1993Latvia104
1993Lithuania65
1993Luxembourg578
1993Malta1407
1993Netherlands581
1993Norway
1993Poland1132
1993Portugal544
1993Romania666
1993Slovakia206
1993Slovenia424
1993Spain458
1993Sweden21
1993Turkey
1993United Kingdom577
1994Austria190
1994Belgium366
1994Bulgaria607
1994Croatia221
1994Cyprus844
1994Czechia757
1994Denmark648
1994EU-27456
1994EU-27 + UK468
1994Estonia1122
1994Finland258
1994France148
1994Germany626
1994Greece1101
1994Hungary470
1994Iceland2
1994Ireland740
1994Italy512
1994Latvia104
1994Lithuania97
1994Luxembourg438
1994Malta1179
1994Netherlands589
1994Norway
1994Poland1131
1994Portugal506
1994Romania653
1994Slovakia192
1994Slovenia392
1994Spain450
1994Sweden25
1994Turkey
1994United Kingdom548
1995Austria203
1995Belgium351
1995Bulgaria570
1995Croatia256
1995Cyprus834
1995Czechia763
1995Denmark617
1995EU-27445
1995EU-27 + UK457
1995Estonia1208
1995Finland238
1995France134
1995Germany610
1995Greece1042
1995Hungary476
1995Iceland2
1995Ireland748
1995Italy542
1995Latvia104
1995Lithuania55
1995Luxembourg956
1995Malta978
1995Netherlands553
1995Norway
1995Poland984
1995Portugal574
1995Romania581
1995Slovakia195
1995Slovenia398
1995Spain496
1995Sweden22
1995Turkey
1995United Kingdom532
1996Austria208
1996Belgium324
1996Bulgaria541
1996Croatia198
1996Cyprus845
1996Czechia769
1996Denmark638
1996EU-27432
1996EU-27 + UK444
1996Estonia1179
1996Finland286
1996France134
1996Germany580
1996Greece991
1996Hungary474
1996Iceland1
1996Ireland734
1996Italy521
1996Latvia167
1996Lithuania91
1996Luxembourg929
1996Malta997
1996Netherlands525
1996Norway
1996Poland971
1996Portugal437
1996Romania588
1996Slovakia209
1996Slovenia360
1996Spain388
1996Sweden47
1996Turkey
1996United Kingdom518
1997Austria186
1997Belgium295
1997Bulgaria552
1997Croatia281
1997Cyprus854
1997Czechia717
1997Denmark586
1997EU-27420
1997EU-27 + UK429
1997Estonia1147
1997Finland254
1997France131
1997Germany566
1997Greece1046
1997Hungary471
1997Iceland1
1997Ireland739
1997Italy512
1997Latvia111
1997Lithuania47
1997Luxembourg494
1997Malta959
1997Netherlands520
1997Norway
1997Poland962
1997Portugal467
1997Romania460
1997Slovakia209
1997Slovenia379
1997Spain428
1997Sweden20
1997Turkey
1997United Kingdom487
1998Austria160
1998Belgium313
1998Bulgaria566
1998Croatia315
1998Cyprus856
1998Czechia729
1998Denmark549
1998EU-27420
1998EU-27 + UK430
1998Estonia1140
1998Finland205
1998France156
1998Germany569
1998Greece1034
1998Hungary462
1998Iceland
1998Ireland716
1998Italy513
1998Latvia96
1998Lithuania103
1998Luxembourg345
1998Malta954
1998Netherlands506
1998Norway
1998Poland938
1998Portugal475
1998Romania405
1998Slovakia208
1998Slovenia391
1998Spain425
1998Sweden21
1998Turkey
1998United Kingdom485
1999Austria164
1999Belgium259
1999Bulgaria516
1999Croatia277
1999Cyprus869
1999Czechia664
1999Denmark509
1999EU-27410
1999EU-27 + UK417
1999Estonia1132
1999Finland204
1999France112
1999Germany550
1999Greece979
1999Hungary467
1999Iceland
1999Ireland719
1999Italy495
1999Latvia115
1999Lithuania110
1999Luxembourg464
1999Malta925
1999Netherlands501
1999Norway
1999Poland935
1999Portugal577
1999Romania399
1999Slovakia220
1999Slovenia344
1999Spain501
1999Sweden21
1999Turkey
1999United Kingdom455
2000Austria156
2000Belgium269
2000Bulgaria485
2000Croatia278
2000Cyprus849
2000Czechia687
2000Denmark463
2000EU-27394
2000EU-27 + UK406
2000Estonia1077
2000Finland159
2000France63
2000Germany558
2000Greece975
2000Hungary460
2000Iceland1
2000Ireland674
2000Italy397
2000Latvia117
2000Lithuania93
2000Luxembourg93
2000Malta839
2000Netherlands494
2000Norway
2000Poland926
2000Portugal484
2000Romania455
2000Slovakia210
2000Slovenia354
2000Spain467
2000Sweden17
2000Turkey
2000United Kingdom480
2001Austria163
2001Belgium257
2001Bulgaria532
2001Croatia296
2001Cyprus787
2001Czechia688
2001Denmark468
2001EU-27389
2001EU-27 + UK403
2001Estonia1035
2001Finland204
2001France43
2001Germany573
2001Greece984
2001Hungary445
2001Iceland1
2001Ireland694
2001Italy385
2001Latvia116
2001Lithuania79
2001Luxembourg164
2001Malta1004
2001Netherlands520
2001Norway
2001Poland918
2001Portugal461
2001Romania453
2001Slovakia217
2001Slovenia383
2001Spain417
2001Sweden19
2001Turkey
2001United Kingdom499
2002Austria152
2002Belgium263
2002Bulgaria491
2002Croatia353
2002Cyprus767
2002Czechia660
2002Denmark460
2002EU-27394
2002EU-27 + UK407
2002Estonia1017
2002Finland227
2002France53
2002Germany558
2002Greece956
2002Hungary434
2002Iceland1
2002Ireland650
2002Italy408
2002Latvia123
2002Lithuania66
2002Luxembourg274
2002Malta957
2002Netherlands501
2002Norway
2002Poland917
2002Portugal539
2002Romania445
2002Slovakia203
2002Slovenia388
2002Spain469
2002Sweden24
2002Turkey
2002United Kingdom489
2003Austria204
2003Belgium178
2003Bulgaria533
2003Croatia384
2003Cyprus774
2003Czechia595
2003Denmark497
2003EU-27391
2003EU-27 + UK407
2003Estonia998
2003Finland287
2003France59
2003Germany499
2003Greece914
2003Hungary480
2003Iceland1
2003Ireland618
2003Italy445
2003Latvia130
2003Lithuania60
2003Luxembourg247
2003Malta969
2003Netherlands509
2003Norway
2003Poland929
2003Portugal439
2003Romania512
2003Slovakia220
2003Slovenia385
2003Spain413
2003Sweden37
2003Turkey
2003United Kingdom501
2004Austria185
2004Belgium-17
2004Bulgaria540
2004Croatia279
2004Cyprus782
2004Czechia576
2004Denmark430
2004EU-27380
2004EU-27 + UK395
2004Estonia1012
2004Finland234
2004France55
2004Germany510
2004Greece920
2004Hungary439
2004Iceland1
2004Ireland595
2004Italy417
2004Latvia92
2004Lithuania63
2004Luxembourg267
2004Malta935
2004Netherlands499
2004Norway
2004Poland906
2004Portugal484
2004Romania441
2004Slovakia217
2004Slovenia363
2004Spain423
2004Sweden21
2004Turkey
2004United Kingdom506
2005Austria179
2005Belgium228
2005Bulgaria497
2005Croatia294
2005Cyprus800
2005Czechia606
2005Denmark385
2005EU-27380
2005EU-27 + UK394
2005Estonia995
2005Finland147
2005France83
2005Germany510
2005Greece915
2005Hungary363
2005Iceland1
2005Ireland601
2005Italy399
2005Latvia86
2005Lithuania98
2005Luxembourg263
2005Malta884
2005Netherlands486
2005Norway
2005Poland891
2005Portugal535
2005Romania392
2005Slovakia194
2005Slovenia355
2005Spain440
2005Sweden17
2005Turkey
2005United Kingdom497
2006Austria174
2006Belgium147
2006Bulgaria485
2006Croatia304
2006Cyprus793
2006Czechia599
2006Denmark481
2006EU-27378
2006EU-27 + UK394
2006Estonia964
2006Finland245
2006France76
2006Germany504
2006Greece854
2006Hungary366
2006Iceland1
2006Ireland552
2006Italy391
2006Latvia109
2006Lithuania98
2006Luxembourg264
2006Malta885
2006Netherlands482
2006Norway
2006Poland905
2006Portugal450
2006Romania415
2006Slovakia185
2006Slovenia368
2006Spain398
2006Sweden19
2006Turkey
2006United Kingdom520
2007Austria160
2007Belgium244
2007Bulgaria608
2007Croatia389
2007Cyprus796
2007Czechia607
2007Denmark445
2007EU-27385
2007EU-27 + UK399
2007Estonia1004
2007Finland220
2007France91
2007Germany520
2007Greece880
2007Hungary364
2007Iceland2
2007Ireland517
2007Italy383
2007Latvia103
2007Lithuania92
2007Luxembourg263
2007Malta887
2007Netherlands487
2007Norway
2007Poland893
2007Portugal421
2007Romania464
2007Slovakia186
2007Slovenia392
2007Spain411
2007Sweden17
2007Turkey
2007United Kingdom508
2008Austria146
2008Belgium241
2008Bulgaria572
2008Croatia336
2008Cyprus793
2008Czechia595
2008Denmark417
2008EU-27363
2008EU-27 + UK379
2008Estonia991
2008Finland161
2008France81
2008Germany490
2008Greece870
2008Hungary353
2008Iceland1
2008Ireland494
2008Italy373
2008Latvia111
2008Lithuania76
2008Luxembourg234
2008Malta862
2008Netherlands480
2008Norway
2008Poland877
2008Portugal416
2008Romania481
2008Slovakia189
2008Slovenia347
2008Spain348
2008Sweden17
2008Turkey
2008United Kingdom502
2009Austria131
2009Belgium214
2009Bulgaria533
2009Croatia263
2009Cyprus776
2009Czechia568
2009Denmark418
2009EU-27349
2009EU-27 + UK362
2009Estonia953
2009Finland176
2009France78
2009Germany487
2009Greece854
2009Hungary310
2009Iceland
2009Ireland474
2009Italy355
2009Latvia97
2009Lithuania78
2009Luxembourg275
2009Malta863
2009Netherlands447
2009Norway
2009Poland857
2009Portugal393
2009Romania377
2009Slovakia167
2009Slovenia333
2009Spain318
2009Sweden17
2009Turkey
2009United Kingdom456
2010Austria153
2010Belgium161
2010Bulgaria534
2010Croatia204
2010Cyprus735
2010Czechia557
2010Denmark373
2010EU-27334
2010EU-27 + UK349
2010Estonia948
2010Finland215
2010France77
2010Germany471
2010Greece875
2010Hungary306
2010Iceland1
2010Ireland485
2010Italy339
2010Latvia121
2010Lithuania308
2010Luxembourg228
2010Malta884
2010Netherlands442
2010Norway
2010Poland850
2010Portugal280
2010Romania301
2010Slovakia142
2010Slovenia334
2010Spain257
2010Sweden23
2010Turkey
2010United Kingdom463
2011Austria160
2011Belgium190
2011Bulgaria587
2011Croatia295
2011Cyprus759
2011Czechia547
2011Denmark336
2011EU-27341
2011EU-27 + UK352
2011Estonia963
2011Finland173
2011France66
2011Germany478
2011Greece883
2011Hungary315
2011Iceland
2011Ireland456
2011Italy328
2011Latvia131
2011Lithuania261
2011Luxembourg230
2011Malta879
2011Netherlands430
2011Norway
2011Poland852
2011Portugal333
2011Romania390
2011Slovakia152
2011Slovenia343
2011Spain320
2011Sweden16
2011Turkey
2011United Kingdom446
2012Austria116
2012Belgium149
2012Bulgaria528
2012Croatia280
2012Cyprus757
2012Czechia510
2012Denmark282
2012EU-27337
2012EU-27 + UK354
2012Estonia905
2012Finland124
2012France71
2012Germany483
2012Greece869
2012Hungary320
2012Iceland
2012Ireland487
2012Italy312
2012Latvia90
2012Lithuania269
2012Luxembourg238
2012Malta883
2012Netherlands456
2012Norway
2012Poland828
2012Portugal397
2012Romania449
2012Slovakia150
2012Slovenia335
2012Spain333
2012Sweden11
2012Turkey
2012United Kingdom494
2013Austria106
2013Belgium75
2013Bulgaria485
2013Croatia198
2013Cyprus666
2013Czechia478
2013Denmark317
2013EU-27322
2013EU-27 + UK336
2013Estonia963
2013Finland158
2013France71
2013Germany489
2013Greece808
2013Hungary288
2013Iceland
2013Ireland460
2013Italy273
2013Latvia128
2013Lithuania199
2013Luxembourg189
2013Malta731
2013Netherlands471
2013Norway
2013Poland828
2013Portugal318
2013Romania291
2013Slovakia131
2013Slovenia311
2013Spain270
2013Sweden11
2013Turkey
2013United Kingdom459
2014Austria92
2014Belgium169
2014Bulgaria479
2014Croatia168
2014Cyprus682
2014Czechia481
2014Denmark277
2014EU-27312
2014EU-27 + UK323
2014Estonia967
2014Finland138
2014France53
2014Germany479
2014Greece846
2014Hungary273
2014Iceland
2014Ireland450
2014Italy258
2014Latvia127
2014Lithuania179
2014Luxembourg198
2014Malta715
2014Netherlands449
2014Norway
2014Poland816
2014Portugal299
2014Romania268
2014Slovakia118
2014Slovenia218
2014Spain280
2014Sweden9
2014Turkey
2014United Kingdom416
2015Austria107
2015Belgium136
2015Bulgaria487
2015Croatia203
2015Cyprus670
2015Czechia493
2015Denmark204
2015EU-27313
2015EU-27 + UK318
2015Estonia949
2015Finland99
2015France54
2015Germany448
2015Greece739
2015Hungary274
2015Iceland
2015Ireland437
2015Italy284
2015Latvia146
2015Lithuania186
2015Luxembourg137
2015Malta654
2015Netherlands506
2015Norway
2015Poland792
2015Portugal364
2015Romania294
2015Slovakia126
2015Slovenia256
2015Spain319
2015Sweden10
2015Turkey
2015United Kingdom366
2016Austria94
2016Belgium170
2016Bulgaria467
2016Croatia204
2016Cyprus679
2016Czechia503
2016Denmark236
2016EU-27302
2016EU-27 + UK301
2016Estonia912
2016Finland103
2016France60
2016Germany445
2016Greece622
2016Hungary263
2016Iceland
2016Ireland429
2016Italy263
2016Latvia129
2016Lithuania143
2016Luxembourg71
2016Malta653
2016Netherlands487
2016Norway
2016Poland786
2016Portugal296
2016Romania308
2016Slovakia118
2016Slovenia256
2016Spain267
2016Sweden10
2016Turkey
2016United Kingdom288
2017Austria103
2017Belgium179
2017Bulgaria499
2017Croatia188
2017Cyprus661
2017Czechia472
2017Denmark179
2017EU-27301
2017EU-27 + UK297
2017Estonia902
2017Finland93
2017France69
2017Germany413
2017Greece657
2017Hungary266
2017Iceland
2017Ireland399
2017Italy265
2017Latvia75
2017Lithuania84
2017Luxembourg64
2017Malta435
2017Netherlands460
2017Norway
2017Poland778
2017Portugal363
2017Romania326
2017Slovakia113
2017Slovenia254
2017Spain306
2017Sweden10
2017Turkey
2017United Kingdom255
2018Austria100
2018Belgium207
2018Bulgaria427
2018Croatia130
2018Cyprus664
2018Czechia465
2018Denmark193
2018EU-27288
2018EU-27 + UK284
2018Estonia874
2018Finland107
2018France58
2018Germany404
2018Greece654
2018Hungary251
2018Iceland
2018Ireland353
2018Italy249
2018Latvia146
2018Lithuania54
2018Luxembourg65
2018Malta356
2018Netherlands440
2018Norway
2018Poland784
2018Portugal310
2018Romania313
2018Slovakia136
2018Slovenia241
2018Spain276
2018Sweden11
2018Turkey
2018United Kingdom242
2019Austria92
2019Belgium174
2019Bulgaria427
2019Croatia163
2019Cyprus642
2019Czechia433
2019Denmark123
2019EU-27253
2019EU-27 + UK250
2019Estonia733
2019Finland84
2019France56
2019Germany344
2019Greece606
2019Hungary227
2019Iceland
2019Ireland316
2019Italy234
2019Latvia160
2019Lithuania72
2019Luxembourg73
2019Malta357
2019Netherlands392
2019Norway
2019Poland744
2019Portugal255
2019Romania289
2019Slovakia122
2019Slovenia238
2019Spain210
2019Sweden10
2019Turkey
2019United Kingdom225

The GHG intensity of electricity production differs significantly from one Member State to the other. In 2020, Estonia, Poland, Cyprus and Greece had the highest electricity generation carbon intensity in the EU. This was the result of using solid fossil fuels and having relatively fewer renewables and limited, or no, nuclear plants in their national electricity mixes. In seven additional Member States, the carbon intensity was higher than the EU average (Czechia, Bulgaria, Malta, the Netherlands, Germany, Romania and Ireland). The GHG intensities for electricity production were lowest in Sweden, France and Lithuania, due to their high share of low-carbon electricity sources (nuclear and renewable power).

Regarding national achievements, the highest rates of decarbonisation in electricity production over the 1990-2020 period were recorded in Luxembourg (86% decrease), Denmark (84% decrease), Slovakia (78% decrease) and Malta and France (76% decrease). In non-EU EEA countries, all electricity produced in Iceland and most produced in Norway comes from renewable sources, and hence, their GHG emission intensities are very low. Turkey has a relatively high GHG emission intensity of electricity generation, whereas for the UK it is close to the EU-27 average. For these countries, however, no early estimates were available in time for this indicator.


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References and footnotes