The CO2 emission intensity is calculated as the ratio of CO2 emissions from electricity generation and gross electricity generation.
Methodology for indicator calculation
The GHG intensity of total electricity generation is taken as the ratio of CO2 equivalent emissions from all electricity production (both from main activity producers and auto-producers) to total electricity generation, including electricity from nuclear plants and renewable sources.
For main activity producers, the CO2e emissions from electricity generation only (i.e. excluding emissions resulting from heat production), were estimated as follows:
a) Estimating the transformation input for gross heat production by formula: (ESTAT code TI_EHG_MAPH_E) + (ESTAT code GHP_MAPCHP) / (apparent efficiency for heat only production); apparent efficiency for heat production is: (ESTAT code GHP_MAPH) / (ESTAT code TI_EHG_MAPH_E). If apparent efficiency is zero (i.e. no heat only production), then default efficiency is 0.9;
b) Estimating the transformation input for electricity generation by subtracting the estimated transformation input for gross heat production from total transformation input for electricity and heat generation, by formula: (ESTAT codes TI_EHG_MAPE_E) + (ESTAT codes TI_EHG_MAPCHP_E) + ( ESTAT codes TI_EHG_MAPH_E) – (the result of a));
c) Multiplying the ratio of b) and the transformation input for electricity and heat generation (ESTAT codes TI_EHG_MAPE_E, TI_EHG_MAPCHP_E, and TI_EHG_MAPH_E) to total CO2e emissions from public electricity and heat production (1A1a from the EEA data viewer). Formula: (EEA data viewer 1A1A) * ((the result of b)) / (the result of a)).
The reported CO2e emissions in class 1A1a do not include CO2e emissions from autoproducers. Emissions from electricity generated by autoproducers were estimated by multiplying the ratio of the energy input for autoproducers and the energy input for main activity producers by the CO2e emissions from main activity producers (as calculated in steps a-c above). The energy input for electricity generation by autoproducers was estimated using the same method as for main activity producers (a and b above) using the ESTAT codes GHP_APH and GHP_APCHP for gross heat production and TI_EHG_APE_E, TI_EHG_APCHP_E, and TI_EHG_APH_E for transformation input for electricity and heat production.
A zero CO2e emission factor was applied to nuclear power and to renewables (including the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste), as the method does not take into account life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. This applies also to solid biofuels: in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Reporting Guidelines, biofuel-related emissions have to be reported as a memorandum item in greenhouse gas emission inventories, with the assumption being that harvesting emissions would be shown as changes in carbon stocks in the land use, land use change and forestry sector, not in the energy sector. This should not be interpreted, however, as an endorsement of default carbon neutrality or the sustainability of biofuels.
The denominator of the GHG intensity of total electricity production is the sum of electricity produced from main activity producers (ESTAT: GEP_MAPE and GEP_MAPCHP) and autoproducers (ESTAT: GEP_APE and GEP_APCHP).
Calculation Formula: (CO2e * ((ei_MAP – dh_MAP) / ei_MAP)) * ((ei_AP - dh_AP) / (ei_MAP - dh_MAP)) + CO2e * ((ei_MAP – dh_MAP) / ei_MAP))) / (GEP / 85.98), where:
- CO2e represents ‘CO2 equivalent emissions - Fuel combustion in public electricity and heat production (A1A1)’, from the EEA greenhouse gas data viewer. The values do not include CO2e emissions from the combustion of biomass; nor do they include upstream emissions (e.g. fugitive emissions due to methane leaks or construction emissions);
- ‘ei_MAP’ represents ‘energy input of Main Activity Producers’ and includes ‘TI_EHG_MAPE_E’, ‘TI_EHG_MAPCHP_E’ and ‘TI_EHG_MAPH_E’;
- ‘ei_AP’ represents ‘energy input of Autoproducers’ and includes ‘TI_EHG_APE’, ‘TI_EHG_APCHP_E’ and ‘TI_EHG_APH_E’;
- ‘dh_MAP’ represents ‘derived heat of Main Activity Producers’ and is based on the formula ‘TI_EHG_MAPH_E’ + ‘GHP_MAPCHP’/(apparent efficiency for heat only production); apparent efficiency for heat production is: 'GHP_MAPH' / 'TI_EHG_MAPH_E';
- ‘dh_AP’ represents ‘derived heat of Autoproducers’ and is based on the formula ‘TI_EHG_APH_E’ + ‘GHP_MAPCHP’/(apparent efficiency for heat only production); apparent efficiency for heat production is: 'GHP_APH' / 'TI_EHG_APH_E';
- ‘GEP’ represents ‘Gross electricity production’ and includes ‘GEP_MAPE’, ‘GEP_MAPCHP’,
- ‘GEP_APE’ and ‘GEP_APECHP’;
- 0.9 represents the assumed efficiency of heat production and is used only when the apparent efficiency calculated based on Eurostat data is zero. A pro-rata split of CO2 between heat and electricity is assumed;
- 85.98 represents the conversion factor from kilotonnes oil equivalent to GWh.
CO2 emissions (EEA):
• derived from the reported total CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat generation from the EEA greenhouse gas data viewer (code: 1A1a). These CO2emissions include both electricity and heat production from Public Electricity Generation, Public Combined Heat and Power, and Public Heat Plants.
- GEP_APCHP Gross electricity generation Autoproducer CHP plants
- GEP_APE Gross electricity generation Autoproducer electricity only
- GEP_MAPCHP Gross electricity generation Main activity CHP plants
- GEP_MAPE Gross electricity generation Main activity electricity only
- GHP_APCHP Gross heat production - Autoproducer CHP
- GHP_APH Gross heat production - Autoproducer heat only
- GHP_MAPCHP Gross heat production - Main activity producer CHP
GHP_MAPH Gross heat production - Main activity producer heat only
- TI_EHG_APCHP_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Autoproducer CHP - Energy use
- TI_EHG_APE_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Autoproducer electricity only
- TI_EHG_APH_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Autoproducer heat only
- TI_EHG_MAPCHP_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Main activity producer CHP - Energy use
- TI_EHG_MAPE_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Main activity producer electricity only
- TI_EHG_MAPH_E Transformation input - Electricity and Heat generation - Main activity producer heat only
- C0000X0350-0370 Solid fossil fuels
- C0350-0370 Manufactured gases
- G3000 Natural Gas
- O4000XBIO Oil and petroleum products (excluding biofuel portion)
- P1000 Peat and Peat products
- S2000 Oil shale and Oil sands
- W6100_6220 Non-renewable waste
- TOTAL Total
- TI Transformation input
- MAP Main activity producer
- AP Autoproducer
- CHP Combined Heat and Power
- E Electricity only
- H Heat only
- EHG Electricity and Heat Production
- GEP Gross Electricity Production
- GHP Gross Heat Production
- SIEC Standard International Energy Products Classification
Methodology for gap filling
No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.
EC, 2021, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — ‘Fit for 55’: delivering the EU’s 2030 climate target on the way to climate neutrality (COM(2021)550 final).
Eurostat, 2021, Statistics Explained, Energy balances – early estimates, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Energy_balances_-_early_estimates, retrieved on 6 October 2021.
EC, 2020, Commission Staff Working Document — impact assessment accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — stepping up Europe’s 2030 climate ambitions — investing in a climate neutral future for the benefit of our people (SWD(2020) 176 final — Part 1/2).
The EU aims to be climate-neutral (i.e. its economy will emit net-zero greenhouse gas emissions) by 2050. This objective is at the heart of the European Green Deal and in line with the EU's commitment to global climate action under the Paris Agreement. Decarbonising electricity supply, for instance by substantially accelerating the deployment of renewable energy sources to achieve a share of almost 70% in electricity generation by 2030 and over 80% by 2050, is critical to achieving this objective.
No targets have been specified.
Related policy documents
No related policy documents have been specified.
EU, 2001, Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants (OJ L 309, 27/11/2001, pp. 1–21).
EU, 2018, Directive (EU) 2018/410 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2018 amending Directive 2003/87/EC to enhance cost-effective emission reductions and low-carbon investments, and Decision (EU) 2015/1814 (OJ L 76, 19.3.2018, p. 3-27).
No uncertainty has been specified.
Data sets uncertainty
No uncertainty has been specified.
No uncertainty has been specified.