The share of energy from renewable sources used for transport in the EU increased from below 2% in 2005 to 8.7% in 2022, according to preliminary European Environment Agency (EEA) data. This is 5.3 percentage points below the 2030 target for the share of renewable energy used in transport. Progress among the EU Member States varies significantly, with the share of energy from renewable sources used for transport ranging from 4.4% in Greece and Ireland to 30.8% in Sweden.

Figure 1. Share of energy from renewable sources used in transport in Europe
YearEU-27Target 2030
20051.814
20062.514
20072.914
20084.114
20094.914
20105.514
20114.114
20125.814
20136.114
20146.614
20156.814
20167.214
20177.514
20188.314
20198.814
202010.314
20219.114
20228.714

In 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) set the target for transport in all Member States, where 10% of all energy used in transport should come from renewable sources by 2020. In 2020, 10.3% of the total energy used in transport in the EU was from renewable sources, following a steady increase in this share since 2005, when it was just under 2%. This indicates that the 2020 target of 10% was reached at the EU level.

In 2018, the new RED version, known as RED II, strengthened the sustainability criteria for bioenergy and set a new goal for 2030, increasing the target for the share of renewable energy used in transport to 14 % by 2030. In 2021, 9.1% of the total energy used in transport in the EU was from renewable sources. Preliminary EEA estimates suggest that this share fell further to 8.7% in 2022, which is 5.3 percentage points below the 2030 target.

The revision of the RED II is ongoing and a new target for renewables by 2030 is under discussion. In spring 2023, the European Parliament and the Council agreed to increase the EU's binding target for total renewable energy shares in electricity, heating and cooling and transport for 2030. To achieve this target in the transport sector, countries could choose from a binding target of a 14.5% reduction of greenhouse gas intensity in transport from the use of renewables or a binding share of at least 29% of renewables within the final consumption of energy in the transport sector by 2030. In addition, as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ package, the Commission proposed the ReFuelEU Aviation and FuelEU Maritime regulations that aim to boost the uptake of renewable and low carbon fuels in these transport modes. These should further support the achievement of the renewable energy targets.

Figure 2. Share of energy from renewable sources used in transport by country
YearCountryValue2030 target
2005EU-271.814
2005Sweden6.614
2005Finland0.914
2005Estonia0.214
2005Slovenia0.814
2005Malta014
2005Denmark0.414
2005Belgium0.714
2005Italy114
2005Austria5.114
2005Spain1.314
2005Netherlands0.514
2005Slovakia1.714
2005Portugal0.514
2005France0.814
2005Germany414
2005Luxembourg0.214
2005Romania1.914
2005Bulgaria0.914
2005Czechia1.114
2005Cyprus014
2005Croatia114
2005Lithuania0.714
2005Latvia2.414
2005Hungary114
2005Poland1.714
2005Greece0.114
2005Ireland0.114
2005Iceland014
2005Norway3.114
2021EU-279.114
2021Sweden30.414
2021Finland20.714
2021Estonia11.214
2021Slovenia10.614
2021Malta10.614
2021Denmark10.514
2021Belgium10.314
2021Italy1014
2021Austria9.414
2021Spain9.214
2021Netherlands914
2021Slovakia8.814
2021Portugal8.614
2021France8.214
2021Germany814
2021Luxembourg814
2021Romania7.714
2021Bulgaria7.614
2021Czechia7.514
2021Cyprus7.214
2021Croatia714
2021Lithuania6.514
2021Latvia6.414
2021Hungary6.214
2021Poland5.714
2021Greece4.314
2021Ireland4.314
2021Iceland12.714
2021Norway20.414
2022 proxyEU-278.714
2022 proxySweden30.814
2022 proxyFinland19.414
2022 proxyEstonia13.314
2022 proxySlovenia7.314
2022 proxyMalta11.614
2022 proxyDenmark1014
2022 proxyBelgium10.414
2022 proxyItaly8.314
2022 proxyAustria9.914
2022 proxySpain8.814
2022 proxyNetherlands9.314
2022 proxySlovakia6.714
2022 proxyPortugal8.314
2022 proxyFrance8.314
2022 proxyGermany814
2022 proxyLuxembourg9.914
2022 proxyRomania7.714
2022 proxyBulgaria7.714
2022 proxyCzechia6.714
2022 proxyCyprus6.714
2022 proxyCroatia7.114
2022 proxyLithuania6.114
2022 proxyLatvia6.614
2022 proxyHungary6.114
2022 proxyPoland5.714
2022 proxyGreece4.414
2022 proxyIreland4.414
2022 proxyIceland12.914
2022 proxyNorway19.414

The extent of progress in achieving the current 2030 targets (of 14% renewable energy used in transport) varies among Member States. According to data from Eurostat shown in figure, Sweden and Finland appear to have already achieved their 2030 target level. Preliminary estimates for 2022 show that only five countries have reached a level of 10%, with two more very close to 10%.

Sweden, which has the highest share of energy from renewable sources in transport, has ambitious targets for the transport sector and uses energy and carbon taxes to achieve these targets: a carbon tax on fuels has been in place since 1991 and exemptions and reductions apply for sustainable biofuels.

Finland has been a leader in setting biofuel distribution obligations to blend a specific energy content of renewable fuel. This had led to significant reduction of road transport emissions as a result of a substantial increase of biodiesel consumption. However, renewable electricity constituted just 4% of total renewable energy used in transport in Finland in 2021. The remaining renewable energy in the share comes from biofuels.