Despite an overall improving trend, the use of fossil fuels increased in 2022 leading to higher emissions of greenhouse gases across the EU electricity sector than was previously observed in 2021. This led to an increase in the greenhouse gas emission intensity of EU power generation: generating 1 kilowatt hour in 2022 emitted, on average, 6% more CO2 than in 2021, yet still 26% less than a decade ago. While climate mitigation and energy policies have been effective in lowering carbon-intensive energy supply over time, high gas prices and nuclear shutdowns in 2022 resulted in more coal use in the generation mix.

Figure 1. Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation
YearMember StateGreenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensityGreenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensityIndicative level-highIndicative level-low
2020EU-27265265
2030EU-27118110
1990Sweden10
1991Sweden15
1992Sweden16
1993Sweden18
1994Sweden24
1995Sweden20
1996Sweden47
1997Sweden22
1998Sweden24
1999Sweden19
2000Sweden17
2001Sweden19
2002Sweden26
2003Sweden35
2004Sweden21
2005Sweden17
2006Sweden20
2007Sweden17
2008Sweden17
2009Sweden17
2010Sweden22
2011Sweden16
2012Sweden12
2013Sweden12
2014Sweden11
2015Sweden9
2016Sweden11
2017Sweden11
2018Sweden11
2019Sweden10
2020Sweden8
2021Sweden9
2022Sweden7
1990Luxembourg418
1991Luxembourg449
1992Luxembourg513
1993Luxembourg625
1994Luxembourg522
1995Luxembourg1058
1996Luxembourg1048
1997Luxembourg581
1998Luxembourg327
1999Luxembourg450
2000Luxembourg92
2001Luxembourg166
2002Luxembourg274
2003Luxembourg246
2004Luxembourg266
2005Luxembourg262
2006Luxembourg262
2007Luxembourg261
2008Luxembourg234
2009Luxembourg275
2010Luxembourg228
2011Luxembourg231
2012Luxembourg234
2013Luxembourg185
2014Luxembourg196
2015Luxembourg138
2016Luxembourg72
2017Luxembourg65
2018Luxembourg65
2019Luxembourg68
2020Luxembourg57
2021Luxembourg47
2022Luxembourg52
1990Finland195
1991Finland175
1992Finland154
1993Finland189
1994Finland249
1995Finland222
1996Finland275
1997Finland253
1998Finland204
1999Finland190
2000Finland159
2001Finland204
2002Finland226
2003Finland286
2004Finland239
2005Finland146
2006Finland244
2007Finland220
2008Finland161
2009Finland175
2010Finland214
2011Finland173
2012Finland124
2013Finland158
2014Finland138
2015Finland99
2016Finland103
2017Finland93
2018Finland109
2019Finland85
2020Finland64
2021Finland70
2022Finland66
1990France205
1991France172
1992France174
1993France161
1994France148
1995France136
1996France136
1997France133
1998France156
1999France111
2000France72
2001France53
2002France62
2003France68
2004France65
2005France83
2006France85
2007France91
2008France81
2009France79
2010France78
2011France70
2012France77
2013France73
2014France55
2015France58
2016France66
2017France73
2018France59
2019France60
2020France56
2021France56
2022France68
1990Latvia343
1991Latvia293
1992Latvia316
1993Latvia242
1994Latvia180
1995Latvia122
1996Latvia196
1997Latvia124
1998Latvia96
1999Latvia161
2000Latvia117
2001Latvia114
2002Latvia123
2003Latvia130
2004Latvia92
2005Latvia86
2006Latvia109
2007Latvia103
2008Latvia111
2009Latvia97
2010Latvia121
2011Latvia131
2012Latvia90
2013Latvia127
2014Latvia127
2015Latvia146
2016Latvia116
2017Latvia65
2018Latvia138
2019Latvia150
2020Latvia103
2021Latvia97
2022Latvia86
1990Austria232
1991Austria240
1992Austria187
1993Austria172
1994Austria190
1995Austria199
1996Austria206
1997Austria206
1998Austria180
1999Austria164
2000Austria155
2001Austria172
2002Austria164
2003Austria204
2004Austria185
2005Austria179
2006Austria174
2007Austria160
2008Austria146
2009Austria130
2010Austria153
2011Austria160
2012Austria116
2013Austria106
2014Austria92
2015Austria107
2016Austria94
2017Austria103
2018Austria100
2019Austria92
2020Austria78
2021Austria81
2022Austria96
1990Denmark686
1991Denmark707
1992Denmark677
1993Denmark643
1994Denmark643
1995Denmark618
1996Denmark638
1997Denmark587
1998Denmark549
1999Denmark518
2000Denmark487
2001Denmark480
2002Denmark472
2003Denmark497
2004Denmark430
2005Denmark396
2006Denmark481
2007Denmark448
2008Denmark420
2009Denmark418
2010Denmark373
2011Denmark336
2012Denmark284
2013Denmark317
2014Denmark277
2015Denmark198
2016Denmark230
2017Denmark174
2018Denmark187
2019Denmark114
2020Denmark111
2021Denmark122
2022Denmark103
1990Slovakia468
1991Slovakia413
1992Slovakia346
1993Slovakia331
1994Slovakia280
1995Slovakia256
1996Slovakia253
1997Slovakia270
1998Slovakia246
1999Slovakia220
2000Slovakia210
2001Slovakia216
2002Slovakia203
2003Slovakia218
2004Slovakia222
2005Slovakia194
2006Slovakia184
2007Slovakia186
2008Slovakia189
2009Slovakia167
2010Slovakia141
2011Slovakia152
2012Slovakia150
2013Slovakia131
2014Slovakia118
2015Slovakia126
2016Slovakia118
2017Slovakia113
2018Slovakia135
2019Slovakia120
2020Slovakia104
2021Slovakia115
2022Slovakia115
1990Croatia332
1991Croatia199
1992Croatia315
1993Croatia331
1994Croatia222
1995Croatia247
1996Croatia180
1997Croatia280
1998Croatia314
1999Croatia286
2000Croatia282
2001Croatia296
2002Croatia353
2003Croatia380
2004Croatia279
2005Croatia293
2006Croatia304
2007Croatia389
2008Croatia337
2009Croatia263
2010Croatia209
2011Croatia295
2012Croatia280
2013Croatia197
2014Croatia171
2015Croatia202
2016Croatia204
2017Croatia188
2018Croatia130
2019Croatia163
2020Croatia155
2021Croatia134
2022Croatia133
1990Belgium353
1991Belgium356
1992Belgium343
1993Belgium350
1994Belgium359
1995Belgium347
1996Belgium320
1997Belgium291
1998Belgium312
1999Belgium259
2000Belgium267
2001Belgium251
2002Belgium259
2003Belgium260
2004Belgium261
2005Belgium257
2006Belgium247
2007Belgium236
2008Belgium230
2009Belgium211
2010Belgium209
2011Belgium186
2012Belgium199
2013Belgium184
2014Belgium166
2015Belgium220
2016Belgium162
2017Belgium170
2018Belgium199
2019Belgium171
2020Belgium167
2021Belgium139
2022Belgium145
1990Portugal519
1991Portugal526
1992Portugal621
1993Portugal544
1994Portugal506
1995Portugal573
1996Portugal436
1997Portugal466
1998Portugal474
1999Portugal576
2000Portugal483
2001Portugal461
2002Portugal539
2003Portugal439
2004Portugal484
2005Portugal535
2006Portugal450
2007Portugal421
2008Portugal416
2009Portugal392
2010Portugal280
2011Portugal332
2012Portugal397
2013Portugal318
2014Portugal299
2015Portugal364
2016Portugal295
2017Portugal362
2018Portugal309
2019Portugal254
2020Portugal203
2021Portugal170
2022Portugal173
1990Lithuania182
1991Lithuania186
1992Lithuania110
1993Lithuania86
1994Lithuania97
1995Lithuania55
1996Lithuania91
1997Lithuania75
1998Lithuania103
1999Lithuania110
2000Lithuania94
2001Lithuania80
2002Lithuania66
2003Lithuania61
2004Lithuania63
2005Lithuania98
2006Lithuania98
2007Lithuania82
2008Lithuania76
2009Lithuania78
2010Lithuania308
2011Lithuania240
2012Lithuania252
2013Lithuania183
2014Lithuania178
2015Lithuania185
2016Lithuania143
2017Lithuania84
2018Lithuania54
2019Lithuania72
2020Lithuania164
2021Lithuania143
2022Lithuania180
1990Hungary478
1991Hungary481
1992Hungary500
1993Hungary491
1994Hungary470
1995Hungary476
1996Hungary474
1997Hungary471
1998Hungary482
1999Hungary467
2000Hungary446
2001Hungary444
2002Hungary433
2003Hungary479
2004Hungary438
2005Hungary363
2006Hungary365
2007Hungary364
2008Hungary352
2009Hungary310
2010Hungary306
2011Hungary314
2012Hungary319
2013Hungary279
2014Hungary262
2015Hungary261
2016Hungary252
2017Hungary258
2018Hungary250
2019Hungary227
2020Hungary215
2021Hungary188
2022Hungary180
1990Spain449
1991Spain444
1992Spain485
1993Spain457
1994Spain450
1995Spain496
1996Spain388
1997Spain427
1998Spain425
1999Spain500
2000Spain467
2001Spain416
2002Spain468
2003Spain412
2004Spain423
2005Spain439
2006Spain398
2007Spain411
2008Spain347
2009Spain317
2010Spain257
2011Spain319
2012Spain333
2013Spain270
2014Spain280
2015Spain318
2016Spain266
2017Spain306
2018Spain276
2019Spain214
2020Spain168
2021Spain165
2022Spain205
1990Slovenia478
1991Slovenia367
1992Slovenia441
1993Slovenia435
1994Slovenia392
1995Slovenia398
1996Slovenia360
1997Slovenia378
1998Slovenia391
1999Slovenia344
2000Slovenia354
2001Slovenia377
2002Slovenia393
2003Slovenia385
2004Slovenia363
2005Slovenia362
2006Slovenia368
2007Slovenia392
2008Slovenia343
2009Slovenia329
2010Slovenia334
2011Slovenia343
2012Slovenia331
2013Slovenia307
2014Slovenia218
2015Slovenia256
2016Slovenia253
2017Slovenia255
2018Slovenia246
2019Slovenia238
2020Slovenia220
2021Slovenia215
2022Slovenia208
1990Romania763
1991Romania798
1992Romania591
1993Romania671
1994Romania660
1995Romania587
1996Romania594
1997Romania465
1998Romania409
1999Romania403
2000Romania460
2001Romania458
2002Romania450
2003Romania518
2004Romania447
2005Romania393
2006Romania422
2007Romania491
2008Romania510
2009Romania450
2010Romania372
2011Romania455
2012Romania460
2013Romania366
2014Romania327
2015Romania346
2016Romania315
2017Romania332
2018Romania319
2019Romania293
2020Romania254
2021Romania241
2022Romania247
1990Italy562
1991Italy536
1992Italy525
1993Italy518
1994Italy512
1995Italy541
1996Italy521
1997Italy512
1998Italy513
1999Italy495
2000Italy397
2001Italy385
2002Italy407
2003Italy445
2004Italy417
2005Italy399
2006Italy391
2007Italy383
2008Italy373
2009Italy355
2010Italy339
2011Italy328
2012Italy313
2013Italy273
2014Italy258
2015Italy284
2016Italy263
2017Italy265
2018Italy249
2019Italy234
2020Italy216
2021Italy236
2022Italy252
1990Ireland768
1991Ireland767
1992Ireland767
1993Ireland751
1994Ireland740
1995Ireland747
1996Ireland734
1997Ireland738
1998Ireland715
1999Ireland719
2000Ireland674
2001Ireland694
2002Ireland650
2003Ireland618
2004Ireland594
2005Ireland601
2006Ireland552
2007Ireland517
2008Ireland494
2009Ireland474
2010Ireland484
2011Ireland455
2012Ireland487
2013Ireland460
2014Ireland450
2015Ireland436
2016Ireland428
2017Ireland398
2018Ireland352
2019Ireland315
2020Ireland280
2021Ireland332
2022Ireland310
1990Netherlands602
1991Netherlands578
1992Netherlands577
1993Netherlands571
1994Netherlands577
1995Netherlands566
1996Netherlands539
1997Netherlands536
1998Netherlands506
1999Netherlands501
2000Netherlands494
2001Netherlands519
2002Netherlands511
2003Netherlands509
2004Netherlands499
2005Netherlands486
2006Netherlands482
2007Netherlands486
2008Netherlands480
2009Netherlands447
2010Netherlands442
2011Netherlands429
2012Netherlands447
2013Netherlands461
2014Netherlands496
2015Netherlands520
2016Netherlands484
2017Netherlands458
2018Netherlands436
2019Netherlands386
2020Netherlands329
2021Netherlands338
2022Netherlands321
1990Malta1604
1991Malta1131
1992Malta1035
1993Malta1406
1994Malta1178
1995Malta978
1996Malta996
1997Malta959
1998Malta954
1999Malta925
2000Malta838
2001Malta1004
2002Malta957
2003Malta969
2004Malta935
2005Malta884
2006Malta885
2007Malta886
2008Malta862
2009Malta863
2010Malta884
2011Malta878
2012Malta883
2013Malta731
2014Malta715
2015Malta654
2016Malta653
2017Malta435
2018Malta356
2019Malta359
2020Malta378
2021Malta349
2022Malta347
1990Germany652
1991Germany656
1992Germany628
1993Germany620
1994Germany616
1995Germany594
1996Germany580
1997Germany566
1998Germany569
1999Germany550
2000Germany551
2001Germany566
2002Germany557
2003Germany543
2004Germany527
2005Germany509
2006Germany503
2007Germany520
2008Germany490
2009Germany486
2010Germany470
2011Germany489
2012Germany495
2013Germany488
2014Germany478
2015Germany448
2016Germany445
2017Germany412
2018Germany406
2019Germany347
2020Germany312
2021Germany347
2022Germany366
1990Czechia763
1991Czechia760
1992Czechia757
1993Czechia742
1994Czechia757
1995Czechia768
1996Czechia774
1997Czechia722
1998Czechia718
1999Czechia663
2000Czechia678
2001Czechia678
2002Czechia663
2003Czechia595
2004Czechia580
2005Czechia606
2006Czechia604
2007Czechia607
2008Czechia595
2009Czechia567
2010Czechia553
2011Czechia547
2012Czechia507
2013Czechia475
2014Czechia478
2015Czechia490
2016Czechia499
2017Czechia472
2018Czechia463
2019Czechia430
2020Czechia389
2021Czechia395
2022Czechia400
1990Greece1188
1991Greece1131
1992Greece1152
1993Greece1118
1994Greece1100
1995Greece1041
1996Greece991
1997Greece1046
1998Greece1034
1999Greece978
2000Greece974
2001Greece983
2002Greece955
2003Greece914
2004Greece920
2005Greece915
2006Greece853
2007Greece879
2008Greece869
2009Greece854
2010Greece875
2011Greece883
2012Greece869
2013Greece807
2014Greece845
2015Greece739
2016Greece621
2017Greece657
2018Greece654
2019Greece606
2020Greece453
2021Greece397
2022Greece416
1990Bulgaria559
1991Bulgaria540
1992Bulgaria630
1993Bulgaria696
1994Bulgaria607
1995Bulgaria569
1996Bulgaria541
1997Bulgaria551
1998Bulgaria565
1999Bulgaria516
2000Bulgaria485
2001Bulgaria532
2002Bulgaria491
2003Bulgaria541
2004Bulgaria543
2005Bulgaria497
2006Bulgaria485
2007Bulgaria608
2008Bulgaria572
2009Bulgaria532
2010Bulgaria533
2011Bulgaria586
2012Bulgaria528
2013Bulgaria485
2014Bulgaria478
2015Bulgaria487
2016Bulgaria467
2017Bulgaria499
2018Bulgaria426
2019Bulgaria426
2020Bulgaria354
2021Bulgaria398
2022Bulgaria422
1990Cyprus852
1991Cyprus839
1992Cyprus839
1993Cyprus839
1994Cyprus844
1995Cyprus834
1996Cyprus845
1997Cyprus854
1998Cyprus855
1999Cyprus869
2000Cyprus848
2001Cyprus786
2002Cyprus766
2003Cyprus773
2004Cyprus781
2005Cyprus800
2006Cyprus792
2007Cyprus795
2008Cyprus793
2009Cyprus776
2010Cyprus735
2011Cyprus759
2012Cyprus757
2013Cyprus666
2014Cyprus682
2015Cyprus670
2016Cyprus679
2017Cyprus661
2018Cyprus664
2019Cyprus642
2020Cyprus623
2021Cyprus605
2022Cyprus589
1990Estonia1006
1991Estonia978
1992Estonia999
1993Estonia1005
1994Estonia1154
1995Estonia1197
1996Estonia1214
1997Estonia1177
1998Estonia1141
1999Estonia1135
2000Estonia1074
2001Estonia1033
2002Estonia1015
2003Estonia1019
2004Estonia1005
2005Estonia1001
2006Estonia955
2007Estonia1015
2008Estonia988
2009Estonia956
2010Estonia956
2011Estonia965
2012Estonia907
2013Estonia953
2014Estonia959
2015Estonia949
2016Estonia912
2017Estonia904
2018Estonia883
2019Estonia730
2020Estonia612
2021Estonia655
2022Estonia658
1990Poland1293
1991Poland1268
1992Poland1296
1993Poland1160
1994Poland1154
1995Poland1003
1996Poland970
1997Poland961
1998Poland937
1999Poland924
2000Poland916
2001Poland905
2002Poland900
2003Poland906
2004Poland905
2005Poland890
2006Poland904
2007Poland892
2008Poland878
2009Poland856
2010Poland849
2011Poland851
2012Poland829
2013Poland827
2014Poland815
2015Poland790
2016Poland772
2017Poland762
2018Poland769
2019Poland730
2020Poland696
2021Poland709
2022Poland666
1990EU-27501
1991EU-27490
1992EU-27478
1993EU-27459
1994EU-27456
1995EU-27445
1996EU-27432
1997EU-27419
1998EU-27420
1999EU-27410
2000EU-27394
2001EU-27388
2002EU-27394
2003EU-27391
2004EU-27380
2005EU-27379
2006EU-27377
2007EU-27385
2008EU-27363
2009EU-27350
2010EU-27335
2011EU-27342
2012EU-27338
2013EU-27322
2014EU-27313
2015EU-27313
2016EU-27303
2017EU-27302
2018EU-27289
2019EU-27255
2020EU-27227
2021EU-27238
2022EU-27251

The EU electricity sector is expected to provide one of the most significant contributions to climate mitigation by 2030 and be a cornerstone for the Union to reach net climate neutrality by 2050, according to scenarios. For that to happen, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the sector needs to fall drastically this decade.

In 2022, the EU’s electricity sector was 50% less GHG intensive than in 1990, yet 6% more than in 2021, as gas prices reached record levels and triggered an increase of coal generation in some countries. With the energy crisis unfolding, electricity generation fell by 3%, compared with 2021. The 2022 worsening of the GHG emission intensity of the sector occurred against the backdrop of an almost unchanged (0.1%) increase in renewable generation in 2022, as rapid growth of solar and wind resources was counterbalanced by drought-related reductions of hydropower availability. At the same time, electricity generated from coal and oil products increased by 8% and 16%, respectively, while nuclear output fell by 17% due numerous outages in France.

Until 2010, the increased efficiencies of transformation from fossil fuels to electricity played a role in decreasing carbon intensities, spurred also by the need to comply with emission limit values set under industrial emissions legislation, such as the Large Combustion Plants Directive 2001/80/EC. Since 2010, the reduction has been almost exclusively because of the transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels in electricity generation, with prices for emission allowances under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme increasing in relevance, especially since 2019.

To reduce EU’s net greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030 (compared with 1990) and reach carbon neutrality by 2050, electricity generation across the EU needs to decarbonise much faster. Figure 1 visualises indicative intensity levels that would be consistent with the EU’s climate targets. Today’s geopolitical context calls for faster decarbonisation to replace gas and coal in power generation, heating and industry. This would substantially reduce electricity prices and improve energy security. To make that happen, additional policies and measures are needed to save energy and improve resource efficiency, deploy renewable generation capacities faster, provide incentives so that users can participate actively in the electricity market and ensure the optimised and secure use of electricity infrastructures across the European Union.

Figure 2. Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation
YearMember StateGreenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensityGreenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensityIndicative level-highIndicative level-low
2020EU-27265265
2030EU-27118110
1990Sweden10
1991Sweden15
1992Sweden16
1993Sweden18
1994Sweden24
1995Sweden20
1996Sweden47
1997Sweden22
1998Sweden24
1999Sweden19
2000Sweden17
2001Sweden19
2002Sweden26
2003Sweden35
2004Sweden21
2005Sweden17
2006Sweden20
2007Sweden17
2008Sweden17
2009Sweden17
2010Sweden22
2011Sweden16
2012Sweden12
2013Sweden12
2014Sweden11
2015Sweden9
2016Sweden11
2017Sweden11
2018Sweden11
2019Sweden10
2020Sweden8
2021Sweden9
2022Sweden7
1990Luxembourg418
1991Luxembourg449
1992Luxembourg513
1993Luxembourg625
1994Luxembourg522
1995Luxembourg1058
1996Luxembourg1048
1997Luxembourg581
1998Luxembourg327
1999Luxembourg450
2000Luxembourg92
2001Luxembourg166
2002Luxembourg274
2003Luxembourg246
2004Luxembourg266
2005Luxembourg262
2006Luxembourg262
2007Luxembourg261
2008Luxembourg234
2009Luxembourg275
2010Luxembourg228
2011Luxembourg231
2012Luxembourg234
2013Luxembourg185
2014Luxembourg196
2015Luxembourg138
2016Luxembourg72
2017Luxembourg65
2018Luxembourg65
2019Luxembourg68
2020Luxembourg57
2021Luxembourg47
2022Luxembourg52
1990Finland195
1991Finland175
1992Finland154
1993Finland189
1994Finland249
1995Finland222
1996Finland275
1997Finland253
1998Finland204
1999Finland190
2000Finland159
2001Finland204
2002Finland226
2003Finland286
2004Finland239
2005Finland146
2006Finland244
2007Finland220
2008Finland161
2009Finland175
2010Finland214
2011Finland173
2012Finland124
2013Finland158
2014Finland138
2015Finland99
2016Finland103
2017Finland93
2018Finland109
2019Finland85
2020Finland64
2021Finland70
2022Finland66
1990France205
1991France172
1992France174
1993France161
1994France148
1995France136
1996France136
1997France133
1998France156
1999France111
2000France72
2001France53
2002France62
2003France68
2004France65
2005France83
2006France85
2007France91
2008France81
2009France79
2010France78
2011France70
2012France77
2013France73
2014France55
2015France58
2016France66
2017France73
2018France59
2019France60
2020France56
2021France56
2022France68
1990Latvia343
1991Latvia293
1992Latvia316
1993Latvia242
1994Latvia180
1995Latvia122
1996Latvia196
1997Latvia124
1998Latvia96
1999Latvia161
2000Latvia117
2001Latvia114
2002Latvia123
2003Latvia130
2004Latvia92
2005Latvia86
2006Latvia109
2007Latvia103
2008Latvia111
2009Latvia97
2010Latvia121
2011Latvia131
2012Latvia90
2013Latvia127
2014Latvia127
2015Latvia146
2016Latvia116
2017Latvia65
2018Latvia138
2019Latvia150
2020Latvia103
2021Latvia97
2022Latvia86
1990Austria232
1991Austria240
1992Austria187
1993Austria172
1994Austria190
1995Austria199
1996Austria206
1997Austria206
1998Austria180
1999Austria164
2000Austria155
2001Austria172
2002Austria164
2003Austria204
2004Austria185
2005Austria179
2006Austria174
2007Austria160
2008Austria146
2009Austria130
2010Austria153
2011Austria160
2012Austria116
2013Austria106
2014Austria92
2015Austria107
2016Austria94
2017Austria103
2018Austria100
2019Austria92
2020Austria78
2021Austria81
2022Austria96
1990Denmark686
1991Denmark707
1992Denmark677
1993Denmark643
1994Denmark643
1995Denmark618
1996Denmark638
1997Denmark587
1998Denmark549
1999Denmark518
2000Denmark487
2001Denmark480
2002Denmark472
2003Denmark497
2004Denmark430
2005Denmark396
2006Denmark481
2007Denmark448
2008Denmark420
2009Denmark418
2010Denmark373
2011Denmark336
2012Denmark284
2013Denmark317
2014Denmark277
2015Denmark198
2016Denmark230
2017Denmark174
2018Denmark187
2019Denmark114
2020Denmark111
2021Denmark122
2022Denmark103
1990Slovakia468
1991Slovakia413
1992Slovakia346
1993Slovakia331
1994Slovakia280
1995Slovakia256
1996Slovakia253
1997Slovakia270
1998Slovakia246
1999Slovakia220
2000Slovakia210
2001Slovakia216
2002Slovakia203
2003Slovakia218
2004Slovakia222
2005Slovakia194
2006Slovakia184
2007Slovakia186
2008Slovakia189
2009Slovakia167
2010Slovakia141
2011Slovakia152
2012Slovakia150
2013Slovakia131
2014Slovakia118
2015Slovakia126
2016Slovakia118
2017Slovakia113
2018Slovakia135
2019Slovakia120
2020Slovakia104
2021Slovakia115
2022Slovakia115
1990Croatia332
1991Croatia199
1992Croatia315
1993Croatia331
1994Croatia222
1995Croatia247
1996Croatia180
1997Croatia280
1998Croatia314
1999Croatia286
2000Croatia282
2001Croatia296
2002Croatia353
2003Croatia380
2004Croatia279
2005Croatia293
2006Croatia304
2007Croatia389
2008Croatia337
2009Croatia263
2010Croatia209
2011Croatia295
2012Croatia280
2013Croatia197
2014Croatia171
2015Croatia202
2016Croatia204
2017Croatia188
2018Croatia130
2019Croatia163
2020Croatia155
2021Croatia134
2022Croatia133
1990Belgium353
1991Belgium356
1992Belgium343
1993Belgium350
1994Belgium359
1995Belgium347
1996Belgium320
1997Belgium291
1998Belgium312
1999Belgium259
2000Belgium267
2001Belgium251
2002Belgium259
2003Belgium260
2004Belgium261
2005Belgium257
2006Belgium247
2007Belgium236
2008Belgium230
2009Belgium211
2010Belgium209
2011Belgium186
2012Belgium199
2013Belgium184
2014Belgium166
2015Belgium220
2016Belgium162
2017Belgium170
2018Belgium199
2019Belgium171
2020Belgium167
2021Belgium139
2022Belgium145
1990Portugal519
1991Portugal526
1992Portugal621
1993Portugal544
1994Portugal506
1995Portugal573
1996Portugal436
1997Portugal466
1998Portugal474
1999Portugal576
2000Portugal483
2001Portugal461
2002Portugal539
2003Portugal439
2004Portugal484
2005Portugal535
2006Portugal450
2007Portugal421
2008Portugal416
2009Portugal392
2010Portugal280
2011Portugal332
2012Portugal397
2013Portugal318
2014Portugal299
2015Portugal364
2016Portugal295
2017Portugal362
2018Portugal309
2019Portugal254
2020Portugal203
2021Portugal170
2022Portugal173
1990Lithuania182
1991Lithuania186
1992Lithuania110
1993Lithuania86
1994Lithuania97
1995Lithuania55
1996Lithuania91
1997Lithuania75
1998Lithuania103
1999Lithuania110
2000Lithuania94
2001Lithuania80
2002Lithuania66
2003Lithuania61
2004Lithuania63
2005Lithuania98
2006Lithuania98
2007Lithuania82
2008Lithuania76
2009Lithuania78
2010Lithuania308
2011Lithuania240
2012Lithuania252
2013Lithuania183
2014Lithuania178
2015Lithuania185
2016Lithuania143
2017Lithuania84
2018Lithuania54
2019Lithuania72
2020Lithuania164
2021Lithuania143
2022Lithuania180
1990Hungary478
1991Hungary481
1992Hungary500
1993Hungary491
1994Hungary470
1995Hungary476
1996Hungary474
1997Hungary471
1998Hungary482
1999Hungary467
2000Hungary446
2001Hungary444
2002Hungary433
2003Hungary479
2004Hungary438
2005Hungary363
2006Hungary365
2007Hungary364
2008Hungary352
2009Hungary310
2010Hungary306
2011Hungary314
2012Hungary319
2013Hungary279
2014Hungary262
2015Hungary261
2016Hungary252
2017Hungary258
2018Hungary250
2019Hungary227
2020Hungary215
2021Hungary188
2022Hungary180
1990Spain449
1991Spain444
1992Spain485
1993Spain457
1994Spain450
1995Spain496
1996Spain388
1997Spain427
1998Spain425
1999Spain500
2000Spain467
2001Spain416
2002Spain468
2003Spain412
2004Spain423
2005Spain439
2006Spain398
2007Spain411
2008Spain347
2009Spain317
2010Spain257
2011Spain319
2012Spain333
2013Spain270
2014Spain280
2015Spain318
2016Spain266
2017Spain306
2018Spain276
2019Spain214
2020Spain168
2021Spain165
2022Spain205
1990Slovenia478
1991Slovenia367
1992Slovenia441
1993Slovenia435
1994Slovenia392
1995Slovenia398
1996Slovenia360
1997Slovenia378
1998Slovenia391
1999Slovenia344
2000Slovenia354
2001Slovenia377
2002Slovenia393
2003Slovenia385
2004Slovenia363
2005Slovenia362
2006Slovenia368
2007Slovenia392
2008Slovenia343
2009Slovenia329
2010Slovenia334
2011Slovenia343
2012Slovenia331
2013Slovenia307
2014Slovenia218
2015Slovenia256
2016Slovenia253
2017Slovenia255
2018Slovenia246
2019Slovenia238
2020Slovenia220
2021Slovenia215
2022Slovenia208
1990Romania763
1991Romania798
1992Romania591
1993Romania671
1994Romania660
1995Romania587
1996Romania594
1997Romania465
1998Romania409
1999Romania403
2000Romania460
2001Romania458
2002Romania450
2003Romania518
2004Romania447
2005Romania393
2006Romania422
2007Romania491
2008Romania510
2009Romania450
2010Romania372
2011Romania455
2012Romania460
2013Romania366
2014Romania327
2015Romania346
2016Romania315
2017Romania332
2018Romania319
2019Romania293
2020Romania254
2021Romania241
2022Romania247
1990Italy562
1991Italy536
1992Italy525
1993Italy518
1994Italy512
1995Italy541
1996Italy521
1997Italy512
1998Italy513
1999Italy495
2000Italy397
2001Italy385
2002Italy407
2003Italy445
2004Italy417
2005Italy399
2006Italy391
2007Italy383
2008Italy373
2009Italy355
2010Italy339
2011Italy328
2012Italy313
2013Italy273
2014Italy258
2015Italy284
2016Italy263
2017Italy265
2018Italy249
2019Italy234
2020Italy216
2021Italy236
2022Italy252
1990Ireland768
1991Ireland767
1992Ireland767
1993Ireland751
1994Ireland740
1995Ireland747
1996Ireland734
1997Ireland738
1998Ireland715
1999Ireland719
2000Ireland674
2001Ireland694
2002Ireland650
2003Ireland618
2004Ireland594
2005Ireland601
2006Ireland552
2007Ireland517
2008Ireland494
2009Ireland474
2010Ireland484
2011Ireland455
2012Ireland487
2013Ireland460
2014Ireland450
2015Ireland436
2016Ireland428
2017Ireland398
2018Ireland352
2019Ireland315
2020Ireland280
2021Ireland332
2022Ireland310
1990Netherlands602
1991Netherlands578
1992Netherlands577
1993Netherlands571
1994Netherlands577
1995Netherlands566
1996Netherlands539
1997Netherlands536
1998Netherlands506
1999Netherlands501
2000Netherlands494
2001Netherlands519
2002Netherlands511
2003Netherlands509
2004Netherlands499
2005Netherlands486
2006Netherlands482
2007Netherlands486
2008Netherlands480
2009Netherlands447
2010Netherlands442
2011Netherlands429
2012Netherlands447
2013Netherlands461
2014Netherlands496
2015Netherlands520
2016Netherlands484
2017Netherlands458
2018Netherlands436
2019Netherlands386
2020Netherlands329
2021Netherlands338
2022Netherlands321
1990Malta1604
1991Malta1131
1992Malta1035
1993Malta1406
1994Malta1178
1995Malta978
1996Malta996
1997Malta959
1998Malta954
1999Malta925
2000Malta838
2001Malta1004
2002Malta957
2003Malta969
2004Malta935
2005Malta884
2006Malta885
2007Malta886
2008Malta862
2009Malta863
2010Malta884
2011Malta878
2012Malta883
2013Malta731
2014Malta715
2015Malta654
2016Malta653
2017Malta435
2018Malta356
2019Malta359
2020Malta378
2021Malta349
2022Malta347
1990Germany652
1991Germany656
1992Germany628
1993Germany620
1994Germany616
1995Germany594
1996Germany580
1997Germany566
1998Germany569
1999Germany550
2000Germany551
2001Germany566
2002Germany557
2003Germany543
2004Germany527
2005Germany509
2006Germany503
2007Germany520
2008Germany490
2009Germany486
2010Germany470
2011Germany489
2012Germany495
2013Germany488
2014Germany478
2015Germany448
2016Germany445
2017Germany412
2018Germany406
2019Germany347
2020Germany312
2021Germany347
2022Germany366
1990Czechia763
1991Czechia760
1992Czechia757
1993Czechia742
1994Czechia757
1995Czechia768
1996Czechia774
1997Czechia722
1998Czechia718
1999Czechia663
2000Czechia678
2001Czechia678
2002Czechia663
2003Czechia595
2004Czechia580
2005Czechia606
2006Czechia604
2007Czechia607
2008Czechia595
2009Czechia567
2010Czechia553
2011Czechia547
2012Czechia507
2013Czechia475
2014Czechia478
2015Czechia490
2016Czechia499
2017Czechia472
2018Czechia463
2019Czechia430
2020Czechia389
2021Czechia395
2022Czechia400
1990Greece1188
1991Greece1131
1992Greece1152
1993Greece1118
1994Greece1100
1995Greece1041
1996Greece991
1997Greece1046
1998Greece1034
1999Greece978
2000Greece974
2001Greece983
2002Greece955
2003Greece914
2004Greece920
2005Greece915
2006Greece853
2007Greece879
2008Greece869
2009Greece854
2010Greece875
2011Greece883
2012Greece869
2013Greece807
2014Greece845
2015Greece739
2016Greece621
2017Greece657
2018Greece654
2019Greece606
2020Greece453
2021Greece397
2022Greece416
1990Bulgaria559
1991Bulgaria540
1992Bulgaria630
1993Bulgaria696
1994Bulgaria607
1995Bulgaria569
1996Bulgaria541
1997Bulgaria551
1998Bulgaria565
1999Bulgaria516
2000Bulgaria485
2001Bulgaria532
2002Bulgaria491
2003Bulgaria541
2004Bulgaria543
2005Bulgaria497
2006Bulgaria485
2007Bulgaria608
2008Bulgaria572
2009Bulgaria532
2010Bulgaria533
2011Bulgaria586
2012Bulgaria528
2013Bulgaria485
2014Bulgaria478
2015Bulgaria487
2016Bulgaria467
2017Bulgaria499
2018Bulgaria426
2019Bulgaria426
2020Bulgaria354
2021Bulgaria398
2022Bulgaria422
1990Cyprus852
1991Cyprus839
1992Cyprus839
1993Cyprus839
1994Cyprus844
1995Cyprus834
1996Cyprus845
1997Cyprus854
1998Cyprus855
1999Cyprus869
2000Cyprus848
2001Cyprus786
2002Cyprus766
2003Cyprus773
2004Cyprus781
2005Cyprus800
2006Cyprus792
2007Cyprus795
2008Cyprus793
2009Cyprus776
2010Cyprus735
2011Cyprus759
2012Cyprus757
2013Cyprus666
2014Cyprus682
2015Cyprus670
2016Cyprus679
2017Cyprus661
2018Cyprus664
2019Cyprus642
2020Cyprus623
2021Cyprus605
2022Cyprus589
1990Estonia1006
1991Estonia978
1992Estonia999
1993Estonia1005
1994Estonia1154
1995Estonia1197
1996Estonia1214
1997Estonia1177
1998Estonia1141
1999Estonia1135
2000Estonia1074
2001Estonia1033
2002Estonia1015
2003Estonia1019
2004Estonia1005
2005Estonia1001
2006Estonia955
2007Estonia1015
2008Estonia988
2009Estonia956
2010Estonia956
2011Estonia965
2012Estonia907
2013Estonia953
2014Estonia959
2015Estonia949
2016Estonia912
2017Estonia904
2018Estonia883
2019Estonia730
2020Estonia612
2021Estonia655
2022Estonia658
1990Poland1293
1991Poland1268
1992Poland1296
1993Poland1160
1994Poland1154
1995Poland1003
1996Poland970
1997Poland961
1998Poland937
1999Poland924
2000Poland916
2001Poland905
2002Poland900
2003Poland906
2004Poland905
2005Poland890
2006Poland904
2007Poland892
2008Poland878
2009Poland856
2010Poland849
2011Poland851
2012Poland829
2013Poland827
2014Poland815
2015Poland790
2016Poland772
2017Poland762
2018Poland769
2019Poland730
2020Poland696
2021Poland709
2022Poland666
1990EU-27501
1991EU-27490
1992EU-27478
1993EU-27459
1994EU-27456
1995EU-27445
1996EU-27432
1997EU-27419
1998EU-27420
1999EU-27410
2000EU-27394
2001EU-27388
2002EU-27394
2003EU-27391
2004EU-27380
2005EU-27379
2006EU-27377
2007EU-27385
2008EU-27363
2009EU-27350
2010EU-27335
2011EU-27342
2012EU-27338
2013EU-27322
2014EU-27313
2015EU-27313
2016EU-27303
2017EU-27302
2018EU-27289
2019EU-27255
2020EU-27227
2021EU-27238
2022EU-27251

The GHG intensity of electricity production differs significantly from one Member State to another. In 2022, Poland, Estonia, Cyprus and Bulgaria had the highest electricity generation carbon intensity in the EU. This was the result of using solid fossil fuels, relatively few renewables and limited, or no, nuclear sources in their national electricity mixes. In seven additional Member States, the carbon intensity was higher than the EU average (Czechia, Greece, Malta, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland and Italy). The GHG intensities for electricity production were lowest in Sweden, Luxembourg and France, because of their high share of low-carbon electricity sources (nuclear and renewable power).

Regarding national achievements, the highest rates of decarbonisation in electricity production over the 1990-2022 period were recorded in Luxembourg (88% decrease), Denmark (85%), Malta (78%) and Slovakia (76%). In non-EU EEA countries, all electricity produced in Iceland and most produced in Norway comes from renewable sources, and hence, their GHG emission intensities are very low. Türkiye has a relatively high GHG emission intensity of electricity generation.