This indicator shows the negative impact of ground-level ozone on ecosystems and vegetation in Europe. In particular, it shows exposure of areas covered with vegetation (crops and forests) to ground-level ozone.
Ground level ozone is one of the most prominent air pollution problems in Europe, mainly due to its effects on human health, crops and natural ecosystems. When absorbed by plants, it damages plant cells, impairing their ability to grow and reproduce, and leading to reduced agricultural crop yields, decreased forest growth and reduced biodiversity.
The risk is estimated by reference to either a target value and a long-term objective, or to the 'critical level' for ozone for each location. The target value and the long-term objective are levels fixed with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful effects on the environment. For ozone, the critical level is a concentration in the atmosphere, above which direct adverse effects on receptors, such as human beings, plants, ecosystems or materials, may occur according to present knowledge .
Methodology for indicator calculation
AOT40 estimated values are calculated from hourly data (EU, 2008) at all rural background stations available in the Air Quality e-reporting database (former AirBase). Only data series with more than 75 % valid data are considered.
The AOT40 maps have been created by combining measurement data from the rural background stations combined with the results of the EMEP dispersion model (EMEP, 2014), altitude field and surface solar radiation in a linear regression model, followed by the interpolation of its residuals by ordinary Kriging. For altitude, dataset GTOPO30 (Global Digital Elevation Model) at a resolution of 30 x 30 arcseconds has been used. The solar radiation has been obtained from ECMWF's Meteorological Archival and Retrieval System (MARS). Kriging is a method of spatial statistics that makes use of spatial autocorrelation (the statistical relationship between the monitoring points expressed in the form of variograms). Kriging weights the surrounding measured values to derive an interpolation for each location. The weights are based (i) on the distance between the measured points and the interpolated point, and (ii) on the overall spatial arrangement among the measured points. The type of Kriging at its parameters (in particular the parameters describing the semivariogram) is chosen in order to minimise the RMS error.
The AOT40 maps have been overlayed in a geographical information system with the land cover CLC2006 map. The resolution was 500 x 500 m2 to generate maps for the agricultural area at risk due to ozone exposure. Exposure of the agricultural area (defined as the land cover level-1 class 2 Agricultural areas encompassing the level-2 classes 2.1 Arable land, 2.2 Permanent crops, 2.3 Pastures and 2.4 Heterogeneous agricultural areas) and forest areas (defined as the land cover level-2 class 3.1. Forests) have been calculated at the country-level.
AOT40 is used to be in line with the Air Quality Directives. However, in considering the latest scientific knowledge concerning vegetation ozone exposure, it should be noted that, at present, ozone impacts on vegetation are better modelled by fluxes of ozone into stomatal openings of vegetation .
In the AOT40-mapping, Turkey has to be excluded due to the lack of reported measurements at rural background stations. In the exposure estimates, the number of countries has been growing since 2004. Figures show the situation in individual years and not a trend.
This indicator provides relevant information for the EU's Seventh Environmental Action Programme (7th EAP) and the Clean Air Programme for Europe proposed by the European Commission at the end of 2013. The long-term strategic objective and core of the new air package is to attain 'air quality levels that do not give rise to significant negative impacts on, or risks for, human health and the environment'. The 7th EAP kept the intermediate objectives already set in the 6th EAP and the 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution to further reduce air pollution and its impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity by 2020. This will be accomplished by achieving full compliance with existing legislation. Furthermore, the long-term objective to not exceed critical levels remains in place.
Internationally, a first step to address air-pollution related impacts on health and the environment was the 1979 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention).
A centrepiece of the convention is the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, subsequently amended in 2012. Critical ozone levels for vegetation were also defined under the LRTAP Convention.
The Air Quality Directive (EU, 2008) sets both a target value (to be met in 2010) and a long-term objective for ozone for the protection of vegetation. The long-term objective is largely consistent with the long-term critical level of ozone for crops, as defined in the UNECE LRTAP Convention.
- UNECE CLRTAP Gothenburg Protocol (1999; amended in 2012)
Using a stepwise approach and taking into account advances in scientific knowledge, the long-term target under the amended protocol is that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed for parties within the geographical scope of EMEP, the critical levels of ozone, as given in Annex I.
Annex I of the amended protocol includes a short definition of critical levels for ozone.
Critical levels for the protection of crops and forests (AOT40f) have also been defined under the LRTAP Convention. The critical level for crops is consistent with the EU long-term objective for vegetation. The critical level for forests relates to the accumulated sum during the growing season (considered as April to September) and is set at 10,000 μg/m3·h.
- Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC)
For the protection of vegetation from ozone exposure, the Air Quality Directive defines:
a) the target value for the protection of vegetation as AOT40-value (calculated from hourly values from May to July, considering the growing season) of 18,000 (μg/m3)·h, averaged over 5 years. This target value should be met in 2010 (2010 being the first year from which data will be used in the calculation over the following 5 years).
b) a long-term objective as AOT40-value (calculated from hourly values from May to July) of 6,000 (μg/m3)·h, with no defined date of attainment.
In the assessment part of the indicator, the target value threshold is also considered. This is the target value considered only for 1 year and not for the averaged period of 5 years.
- The Clean Air Programme for Europe
New air policy objectives for 2030 are specified in the Clean Air Programme for Europe proposed by the European Commission in 2013, in line with the long term objective of reaching no exceedance of the critical levels.
- 7th Environment Action ProgrammeDECISION No 1386/2013/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 20 November 2013 on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’. In November 2013, the European Parliament and the European Council adopted the 7 th EU Environment Action Programme to 2020 ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’. This programme is intended to help guide EU action on the environment and climate change up to and beyond 2020 based on the following vision: ‘In 2050, we live well, within the planet’s ecological limits. Our prosperity and healthy environment stem from an innovative, circular economy where nothing is wasted and where natural resources are managed sustainably, and biodiversity is protected, valued and restored in ways that enhance our society’s resilience. Our low-carbon growth has long been decoupled from resource use, setting the pace for a safe and sustainable global society.’
- 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, amended on 4 May 2012.
- A Clean Air Programme for Europe Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - 'A Clean Air Programme for Europe', COM(2013) 918 final
- Directive 2008/50/EC, air quality Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.
- Thematic Strategy on Air PollutionCommunication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament - Thematic Strategy on air pollution (COM(2005) 0446 final)
- UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air PollutionUNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.
- EEA, 2007 Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2006. EEA Technical report 5/2007, European Environment Agency.
- EU, 1997 Council Decision 97/101/EC on the exchange of information and data on ambient air quality, replaced by (EU, 2011).
- EU, 2008 Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.
- EU, 2011 Commission Implementing Decision 2011/850/EU laying down rules for Directive 2004/107/EC and 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the reciprocal exchange of information and reporting on ambient air.
- Hettelingh, J.-P., Posch, M., and Slootweg, J. (eds.), EC4MACS Uncertainty Treatment, The CCE-EIA Ecosystem Impact Model, European Consortium for Modelling of Air Pollution and Climate Strategies – EC4MACS (Life project). 2012.
- ICP on Modelling and Mapping, 2015 ICP on Modelling and Mapping critical loads and levels approach.
- Suutari, R. Amann, M., Cofala, J., Klimont, Z., Schöpp, W. and Posch, M., From Economic Activities to Ecosystem Protection in Europe – An Uncertainty Analysis of Two Scenarios of the RAINS Integrated Assessment Model. EMEP CIAM/CCE Report 1/2001, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. 2001.
- Umweltbundesamt, 2004 Manual on methodologies and criteria for modelling and mapping critical loads & levels and air pollution effects, risks and trends. Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Berlin.
- EU, 2016 Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC.
This indicator provides information on the area for which monitoring information is available. In previous years, yearly changes in monitoring density influenced the total monitored area. By using interpolated maps, this problem is largely solved; maps are less sensitive for changes in the central part of the network (though more sensitive for changes in the number of stations in the outskirts).
The indicator is also subject to year-to-year fluctuations as it is mainly sensitive to episodic conditions, and these depend on particular meteorological situations, the occurrence of which varies from year to year. When averaging over Europe, this meteorologically induced variation may be less, provided spatial data coverage is sufficient. Methodology uncertainty is also given by uncertainty in mapping AOT40 based on the interpolation of point measurements at background stations. The mean interpolation uncertainty of the map of AOT40 for crops is estimated to be about 35%.
Most data have been officially submitted to the Commission under the Exchange of Information Decision (EU, 1997), the Implementing Decision on exchange of information and reporting (EU, 2011) and/or to EMEP under the LRTAP Convention. Air quality monitoring station characteristics and representativeness may not be well documented, which may imply that stations that are not representative for background conditions have been included, probably leading to a slight underestimation of the indicator. Coverage of territory and time may be incomplete.
This indicator is rather sensitive to the precision at the reference level (40 ppb or 80 micrograms per m3).