The two figures in this indicator provide information about the landfilling of waste. Figure 1 shows amounts and percentage values of waste deposited into landfills and waste landfill rate. Figure 2 shows waste landfill rates as percentage and by country. Data presented in the form of a bar chart are displayed as a comparison of the reference (2010) and the last available year.
Methodology for indicator calculation
Raw data for waste generation and treatment were retrieved from Eurostat. Eurostat aggregate data for the 27 EU Member States were used. Data on waste generation contain all NACE (statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community) activities and households. Frequency of data publishing is every 2 years (for waste generation) to every year (for population and GDP). Information on data set uncertainties can be found directly in the metadata and explanatory notes provided by Eurostat. Only official Eurostat data sets have been used.
The landfill rate is calculated as a percentage of municipal waste treated that is landfilled. Data is presented in descending order according to 2020 data values. Data for 2011 is shown instead of 2010 for Denmark. Data for 2019 is shown instead of 2020 for Greece. No data was available for 2020 for Montenegro, Albania and Kosovo. No data was available for 2020 for Iceland, Serbia, Turkiye and Bosnia and Herzegovina.The horizontal line represents the target for the year 2035 according to the Landfill Directive (Directive 1999/31/EC, as amended by Directive (EU) 2018/850).
Methodology for gap filling
No methodology for gap filling has been specified.
No methodology references available.
Justification for indicator selection
No rationale has been identified for this indicator.
- No rationale references available.
One of the characteristics of the linear economy system, which has predominated in recent decades, is a high level of resource consumption followed by a high level of waste generation (‘take-make-dispose’ model). This economic model is based on increasing profits generated by the consumption of primary resources and increasing demand for short-cycle products. In 2015, 2018 and 2020, the European Commission adopted circular economy packages to make the transition to a stronger, circular economic model, where resources are used in a more sustainable way. The waste hierarchy serves to set priorities for national waste policies and gives the highest priority to waste prevention, followed by preparing for reuse, recycling, other methods of recovery and disposal. These priorities are highlighted by recent waste and resource efficiency policies and strategies at EU and national levels.
No targets have been specified.
Related policy documents
- COM(2011) 571 final, Roadmap to a resource efficient Europe. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS. Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe
- COM(2020) 98 final, A new Circular Economy Action Plan For a cleaner and more competitive Europe. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS A new Circular Economy Action Plan For a cleaner and more competitive Europe COM/2020/98 final
- Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste
- Directive (EU) 2018/850 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste. Directive (EU) 2018/850 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste
- Directive (EU) 2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2008/98/EC on waste. Directive (EU) 2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2008/98/EC on waste
No uncertainty has been identified.
Data sets uncertainty
No uncertainty has been specified.
No uncertainty has been specified.