ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer and the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments.
Methodology for indicator calculation
Maximum ozone hole area
This indicator presents the maximum ozone hole area in km2. The ozone hole area is determined from total ozone satellite measurements. It is defined as the region of ozone with values of below 220 DU located south of 40 °S. The maximum ozone hole area is provided in km2 by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS — https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/).
Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
The indicator presents ODS consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS consumed, multiplied by their respective ODP value. UNEP Ozone Secretariat data are already provided in ODP tonnes. All data can be downloaded from https://ozone.unep.org/countries/data-table
Formulae for calculating consumption are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol and can be accessed here: https://ozone.unep.org/
Simply put, consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports. Amounts destroyed or used as feedstock are subtracted from production. Amounts of MB used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications are excluded. Exports to non-parties are included, but are not allowed.
Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in official data reporting forms. The parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task itself.
Methodology for gap filling
No gap filling takes place.
- Handbook for the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer (fourteenth edition) UNEP 2020 (December 2020 specific URL).
The 1987 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a global decrease in the impact of ODS on the atmosphere. The agreement covers the phase-out of over 200 individual ODS including CFCs, halons, CTC, TCA, HCFCs, HBFCs, BCM and MB. The Montreal Protocol controls the consumption and production of these substances, not their emissions.
Following the signing of the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase out the production and consumption of ODS to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks the progress of EU Member States towards this limiting or phasing out of ODS consumption.
For the EU, the ratification dates were the following:
Date of ratification
17 October 1988
16 December 1988
20 December 1991
20 November 1995
17 November 2000
25 March 2002
EU Member States have made tremendous progress in reducing the consumption and production of ODS since the signing of the Montreal Protocol. In that time, ODS production has fallen from over half a million ODP tonnes to practically zero, not including production for exempted uses. Since 2009, EU Member States have also been subject to the more stringent EU ODS Regulation (Commission Regulation (EU) No 744/2010 amending Regulation (EC) 1005/2009), which applies to additional substances and accelerates the phase-out of the remaining ODS in the EU.
The international target under the ozone conventions and protocols is the complete phase-out of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
Related policy documents
- Commission Regulation (EU) No 744/2010 amending Regulation (EC) No 1005/2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer, with regard to the critical uses of halons
- Regulation (EC) No 1005/2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer
- Regulation (EC) No 2038/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 September 2000 amending Regulation (EC) No 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer, as regards metered dose inhalers and medical drug pumps
- Regulation (EC) No 2039/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 September 2000 amending Regulation (EC) No 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer, as regards the base year for the allocation of quotas of hydrochlorofluorocarbons
- The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Policies focus on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions, which are what actually harm the ozone layer. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver of industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after the disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.). The same is true for sales of ODS for certain uses and their actual use.
Data set uncertainty
Data provided by the Ozone Secretariat and the EEA database on ozone-depleting substances are based on reporting from companies that produce, import, export, use or destroy ODS. A number of rigorous quality checks ensure a high degree of completeness and correctness. The quality of the data ultimately remains the responsibility of each reporting company.
Omissions and double-counting are theoretically possible because of the nature of the reporting obligation under the EU Ozone Regulation. It is estimated that such uncertainties affect a negligible part of the data.
Policies focus on the production and consumption of ODS rather than on emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver of industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after the disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).