Air pollution - Why care? (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

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In the current general economic recession, industrial facilities in BIH either work with lower capacity or are closed down completely. This has resulted in a decrease in harmful emissions to the atmosphere...
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 21 Mar 2015

In Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the main sources of air pollution are stationary and include coal-power plants and industry. Large thermal energy (TE) facilities (TE Kakanj, TE Tuzla) have relatively a high content of sulphur. Even though these facilities are usually located in the vicinity of mines, equipped with tall stacks and modern filters for exhaust gases, they still emit considerable quantities of sulphur dioxide, whose emission is not regulated in BiH. 

In the current general economic recession, industrial facilities in BIH either work with lower capacity or are closed down completely. This has resulted in a decrease in harmful emissions to the atmosphere. On the other hand, pollution caused by local traffic is increasing. Railroads are electrified, but are still in the initial reconstruction stage, so all local transportation is carried out by road, characterised by a large number of old vehicles and low, unmonitored liquid fuel quality.

Local meteorological conditions, as well as topography, have a major impact on air quality in urban areas. Air quality is then strongly influenced by pollutants trapped due to thermal inversions.

Institutional organisation Air quality management is under the jurisdiction of entity ministries responsible for environment. Certain activities regarding air quality monitoring are carried out by the entity meteorological institutes. However, the monitoring quality assurance system has not yet been established in BiH.

Instruments Republika Srpska recently adopted a law on air protection, and until adoption of the same in the Federation of BiH, issues related to air quality in FBiH will be regulated by existing legislation on physical planning. The new framework law on air will be a good instrument for improvement of the situation in this field although important results will be achieved only after secondary legislation is drafted, and pollution charges are introduced. 

Tools Application of tools in air quality management in BiH is not well known. Spatial and urban planners do not sufficiently use emission cadastres and atmospheric distribution models to the extent necessary. Methodologies developed in BiH before the war are used for reporting to international organisations. These take into account local specificities (fuel quality, data collection capabilities). Whereas methodologies prescribed by international organisations (e.g. Corinair, IPCC) are currently being introduced. The following tools are used:

  •  DEM (Data Exchange Module) software adopted by the European Environment Agency – for AQ EOI Data.
  • Use of software that allows calculation of pollutant emissions into the air – namely CORINAIR methodology and Software: COLLECTER, COPERT, and REPORTER

 

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