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Table 2

Page Last modified 16 Nov 2021
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Table 2. Theoretical health benefits, in terms of reductions in premature deaths, that would have been attained in 2019 if the different EU limit values and WHO guidelines for PM2.5 had been met, by country

Country

2019 levels

EU limit value

25 µg/m3

 

EU indicative limit value

20 µg/m3

 

WHO interim target 3

15 µg/m3

WHO interim target 4

(2005 WHO air quality guideline)

10 µg/m3

WHO air quality guideline

5 µg/m3

Premature deaths

Premature deaths

% reduction on 2019 levels

Premature deaths

% reduction on 2019 levels

Premature deaths

% reduction on 2019 levels

Premature deaths

% reduction on 2019 levels

Premature deaths

% reduction on 2019 levels

Austria

5,200

5,200

0

5,200

0

5,100

2

4,300

17

2,300

56

Belgium

6,500

6,500

0

6,500

0

6,500

0

5,800

11

3,000

54

Bulgaria

10,600

10,500

1

10,000

6

8,600

19

6,000

43

3,100

71

Croatia

4,200

4,200

0

4,100

2

3,800

10

2,900

31

1,500

64

Cyprus

700

700

0

700

0

600

14

500

29

200

71

Czechia

8,500

8,500

0

8,500

0

8,200

4

6,200

27

3,200

62

Denmark

2,900

2,900

0

2,900

0

2,900

0

2,900

0

1,600

45

Estonia

500

500

0

500

0

500

0

500

0

400

20

Finland

1,500

1,500

0

1,500

0

1,500

0

1,500

0

1,400

7

France

29,800

29,800

0

29,800

0

29,800

0

28,100

6

15,900

47

Germany

53,800

53,800

0

53,800

0

53,800

0

51,400

4

27,000

50

Greece

10,400

10,400

0

10,300

1

9,300

11

6,700

36

3,400

67

Hungary

10,400

10,400

0

10,400

0

10,200

2

7,300

30

3,700

64

Ireland

1,300

1,300

0

1,300

0

1,300

0

1,300

0

900

31

Italy

49,900

49,900

0

49,100

2

45,200

9

34,500

31

17,700

65

Latvia

1,600

1,600

0

1,600

0

1,600

0

1,400

13

800

50

Lithuania

2,500

2,500

0

2,500

0

2,500

0

2,100

16

1,100

56

Luxembourg

200

200

0

200

0

200

0

200

0

100

50

Malta

300

300

0

300

0

300

0

200

33

100

67

Netherlands

8,900

8,900

0

8,900

0

8,900

0

8,300

7

4,200

53

Poland

39,300

39,100

1

37,600

4

32,700

17

22,800

42

11,600

70

Portugal

4,900

4,900

0

4,900

0

4,900

0

4,800

2

3,000

39

Romania

21,500

21,500

0

21,300

1

19,600

9

14,300

33

7,300

66

Slovakia

4,200

4,200

0

4,200

0

4,000

5

2,900

31

1,500

64

Slovenia

1,400

1,400

0

1,400

0

1,400

0

1,100

21

600

57

Spain

23,300

23,300

0

23,200

0

23,100

1

20,800

11

11,600

50

Sweden

2,800

2,800

0

2,800

0

2,800

0

2,800

0

2,300

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albania

4,000

4,000

0

3,800

5

3,300

18

2,300

43

1,200

70

Andorra

40

40

0

40

0

40

0

40

0

20

50

Bosnia and Herzegovina

5,900

5,400

8

4,800

19

4,000

32

2,800

53

1,400

76

Iceland

50

50

0

50

0

50

0

50

0

50

0

Kosovo

2,800

2,800

0

2,600

7

2,100

25

1,500

46

700

75

Liechtenstein

10

10

0

10

0

10

0

10

0

10

0

Monaco

20

20

0

20

0

20

0

20

0

10

50

Montenegro

900

900

0

800

11

700

22

500

44

300

67

North Macedonia

3,400

3,200

6

2,900

15

2,500

26

1,700

50

900

74

Norway

1,200

1,200

0

1,200

0

1,200

0

1,200

0

1,000

17

San Marino

30

30

0

30

0

30

0

20

33

10

67

Serbia

11,400

11,200

2

10,300

10

8,300

27

5,700

50

2,900

75

Switzerland

3,200

3,200

0

3,200

0

3,200

0

3,200

0

1,900

41

United Kingdom

33,100

33,100

0

33,100

0

33,100

0

31,800

4

17,200

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EU27

306700

306,500

0

303,500

1

289,200

6

241,400

21

129,400

58

Total

372,800

371,700

0

366,600

2

347,700

7

292,200

22

156,900

58

Note: 
Premature deaths for the different scenarios were calculated on the assumption that all PM2.5 concentrations for 2019 over the level under consideration were reduced to that respective level, while concentrations in areas that already attain or were below that level remained unchanged.
Numbers of premature deaths are rounded to the nearest hundred.
Percentages are founded to the nearest integer.

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