Indicator Specification

Water temperature

Indicator Specification
  Indicator codes: CLIM 019
Published 08 Sep 2008 Last modified 25 Aug 2017
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Water temperatures in four selected European rivers and lakes in the 20th century

Update planned for November 2012

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)
  • No published assessments


Justification for indicator selection

Since water temperature is mainly determined by heat exchange with the atmosphere, higher air temperatures lead to higher water temperatures. Higher water temperatures, particularly in standing waters and low-flow situations in rivers, will bring about changes in the physico-chemical condition of water bodies with subsequent impacts on biological conditions. This may have severe consequences for ecosystem structure and function as well as for water use and ecosystem services.
Impacts of increased water temperatures may also include more stable vertical stratification of deep lakes and increased oxygen depletion in lake bottoms (stratification in other lakes may become less stable), more frequent harmful algal blooms, reduced habitats for cold-water aquatic species, and increased incidence of temperature-dependent diseases.
Human intervention can only help freshwater ecosystems to adapt to increasing water temperature in a limited way, for example by reducing the pressures from other human activities such as pollution by nutrients and hazardous substances and pressure from hydromorphological modifications. Such actions may make the water bodies less vulnerable to stress resulting from higher water temperature. Additional pollution load reduction measures may be needed in river basin management plans to obtain good ecological status, as required by the Water Framework Directive.

Scientific references

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

  • Water temperatures in four selected European rivers and lakes in the 20th century



Policy context and targets

Context description

In April 2009 the European Commission presented a White Paper on the framework for adaptation policies and measures to reduce the European Union's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. The aim is to increase the resilience to climate change of health, property and the productive functions of land, inter alia by improving the management of water resources and ecosystems. More knowledge is needed on climate impact and vulnerability but a considerable amount of information and research already exists which can be shared better through a proposed Clearing House Mechanism. The White Paper stresses the need to mainstream adaptation into existing and new EU policies. A number of Member States have already taken action and several have prepared national adaptation plans. The EU is also developing actions to enhance and finance adaptation in developing countries as part of a new post-2012 global climate agreement expected in Copenhagen (Dec. 2009). For more information see:


No targets have been specified

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified



Methodology for indicator calculation

Methodology for gap filling

Methodology references

No methodology references available.


Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

External data references

Data sources in latest figures



Methodology uncertainty

Data sets uncertainty

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peter Kristensen


European Environment Agency (EEA)


Indicator code
CLIM 019
Version id: 1


DPSIR: Impact
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)


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