Production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: CLIM 049
Created 07 Oct 2010 Published 24 Aug 2015 Last modified 28 May 2019
11 min read
ODSs are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments and trends in the remaining uses of ODSs within the EU. Context: the ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth’s atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone ( O 3 ) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the  sun's  ultraviolet ( UV) radiation. This natural phenomenon is essential for life on Earth because UV radiation damages living tissue. Ozone depletion refers to the steady decline in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere and the decrease in stratospheric ozone in the polar regions during the spring season. This has become widely known as the 'ozone hole'. This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was caused by complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ODSs, which are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

The release of ODSs to the atmosphere leads to the depletion of Earth's ozone layer, which is manifested most prominently in the occurrence of the annual ozone hole over the Antarctic. The stratospheric ozone layer protects humans and the environment from the harmful UV radiation emitted by the sun. Ozone is destroyed by chlorine and bromine atoms that are released in the stratosphere from anthropogenic chemicals — including CFCs, halons, 1,1,1 TCA, CTC, HBFCs, BCM, n-propyl bromide and HCFCs — as well as methyl chloride (MC) and MB. The depletion of stratospheric ozone leads to increases in ambient UV radiation at the Earth's surface, which has a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and food chains. This indicator tracks the annual maximum Antarctic ozone hole area to determine the state of the ozone layer and its recovery since the late 1970s.

Since the mid-1980s, various policy measures have been introduced to limit or phase out the production and consumption of ODSs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion. This indicator tracks progress towards the objectives of limiting or phasing out the consumption of ODSs in the EEA-33. It also highlights the remaining uses of ODSs, ranks their harmfulness to the ozone layer and tracks related trends since 2011.

Scientific references

Indicator definition

ODSs are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments and trends in the remaining uses of ODSs within the EU.

Context: the ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth’s atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone (O3
) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the 
sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This natural phenomenon is essential for life on Earth because UV radiation damages living tissue. Ozone depletion refers to the steady decline in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere and the decrease in stratospheric ozone in the polar regions during the spring season. This has become widely known as the 'ozone hole'. This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was caused by complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ODSs, which are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity.

Units

Depending on the metric involved, this indicator uses the annual maximum Antarctic ozone hole area in square kilometres (km2) and ODS consumption weighted by the ODP of the substances in ODP tonnes.

Policy context and targets

Context description

The 1987 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a global decrease in the impact of ODSs on the atmosphere. The agreement covers the phase-out of over 200 ODSs including CFCs, halons, CTC, TCA, HCFCs, HBFCs, BCM and MB. The Montreal Protocol controls the consumption and production of these substances, not their emissions.

Following the signing of the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase out the production and consumption of ODSs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks the progress of EU Member States towards this limiting or phasing out ODS consumption.

For the EU, the ratification dates were the following:

Treaty

Date of ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 October 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 December 1988

London Amendment

 20 December 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 November 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 November 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 March 2002

EEA member countries have made tremendous progress in reducing the consumption and production of ODSs since the signing of the Montreal Protocol. In that time, ODS production has fallen from over half a million ODP tonnes to practically zero, not including production for exempted uses. Since 2009, EEA member countries have also been subject to the more stringent EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC as amended by 744/2010/EU), which applies to additional substances and accelerates the phase-out of remaining ODSs in the EU.

Targets

The international target under the ozone conventions and protocols is the complete phase-out of ODSs, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1, of the Montreal Protocol are considered developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10-20 years compared with non-Article 5(1) countries.

Montreal ProtocolEEA member country
Article 5(1)  Turkey
Non-Article 5(1) All other EEA member countries

 

A summary of the phase-out schedule for non-Article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments, is shown in the table below.

GroupPhase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countriesRemark

Annex A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100 % reduction by 1 January 1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100 % reduction by 1 January 1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100 % reduction by 1 January 1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100 % reduction by 1 January 1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (= methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100 % reduction by 1 January 1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35 % reduction by 1 January 2004

65 % reduction by 1 January 2010

90 % reduction by 1 January 2015

99.5 % reduction by 1 January 2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date

100 % reduction by 1 January 2030

Applicable to consumption

 Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons)

Base level: average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1 January 2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (hydrobromofluorocarbons)

Base level: year not specified

100 % reduction by 1 January 1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified

100 % reduction by 1 January 2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 1 January 1995

25 % reduction by 1 January 1999

50 % reduction by 1 January 2001

75 % reduction by 1 January 2003

100 % reduction by 1 January 2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Related policy documents

Key policy question

Are ozone-depleting substances being phased out in accordance with the agreed schedule?

Specific policy question

What are the remaining uses of ozone-depleting substances?

Specific policy question

What is the current state of the ozone layer?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Maximum ozone hole area

This indicator presents the maximum ozone hole area in km2. The ozone hole area is determined from total ozone satellite measurements. It is defined as the region of ozone with values of below 220 DU located south of 40 °S. The maximum ozone hole area is provided in km2 by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center via Ozone Hole Watch. It can be accessed online at http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

Consumption of ozone-depleting substances 

The indicator presents ODS consumption in units of tonnes of ODSs, which is the amount of ODSs consumed, multiplied by their respective ODP value. UNEP Ozone Secretariat data are already provided in ODP tonnes. All data can be downloaded from http://ozone.unep.org/Data_Access/

Formulae for calculating consumption are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol and a summary can be accessed here: http://ozone.unep.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions/faqs_compliance.shtml

Simply put, consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports. Amounts destroyed or used as feedstock are subtracted from production. Amounts of MB used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications are excluded. Exports to non-parties are included, but are not allowed.

Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in official data reporting forms. The parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task itself.

Remaining uses of ozone-depleting substances in EU Member States

This indicator presents reported sales of ODSs on the European market and reported production in ODP tonnes (see above). These data are reported annually to the EEA by companies under the EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC) and treated as confidential. Data represented here were reported by at least three company groups that each contributed at least 5 % of the total reported amount.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling takes place.

Methodology references

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

External data references

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Policies focus on the production and consumption of ODSs rather than emissions, which are what actually harm the ozone layer. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver of industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after the disposal of products in which ODSs are used (fire extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.). The same is true for sales of ODSs for certain uses and their actual use.

Data sets uncertainty

Data provided by the Ozone Secretariat and the EEA Ozone Database are based on reporting from companies that produce, import, export, use or destroy ODSs. A number of rigorous quality checks ensure a high degree of completeness and correctness. The quality of the data ultimately remains the responsibility of each reporting company.

Omissions and double-counting are theoretically possible because of the nature of the reporting obligation under the ODS Regulation. It is estimated that such uncertainties affect a negligible part of the data.

Rationale uncertainty

Policies focus on the production and consumption of ODSs rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver of industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after the disposal of products in which ODSs are used (fire extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CLIM 049
Specification
Version id: 2

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)

Related content

Data references used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

Document Actions