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Final energy consumption by sector and fuel in Europe

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: ENER 016
Created 14 Nov 2019 Published 31 Jan 2020 Last modified 31 Jan 2020
10 min read
Topics:
Final energy consumption covers the energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of the final energy consumption of all sectors. These sectors are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture. The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio of the final energy consumption of that sector to the total final energy consumption, calculated for each calendar year. It is a useful indicator that highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

This indicator tracks the progress made towards reducing energy consumption in the different end-use sectors in Europe. Indirectly, the indicator shows the progress (or lack of) towards reducing the environmental impacts associated with energy production as a result of a reduction in energy consumption. It can be used to monitor progress in the implementation of energy efficiency and energy conservation policies. In the EU-28, achieving 2020 targets for both greenhouse gas emissions and renewables entails a certain level of energy efficiency/conservation.

Scientific references

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

Final energy consumption covers the energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of the final energy consumption of all sectors. These sectors are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.

The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio of the final energy consumption of that sector to the total final energy consumption, calculated for each calendar year. It is a useful indicator that highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Units

Final energy consumption is measured in million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE).

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The trends in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provide a broad indication of progress towards reducing final energy consumption and the associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (the transport, industry, services and households sectors). The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, etc.) depend both on the sources of energy and on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. demand for heat demand, or passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity) or a combination of these.

Policy context

On 19 June 2018, a political agreement on new rules for improving energy efficiency in Europe was reached between negotiators from the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council. The new regulatory framework includes an energy efficiency target for the EU for 2030 of 32.5 %, with an upwards revision clause by 2023. This update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, proposed by the Commission on 30 November 2016, includes a 30 % energy efficiency target for 2030.

  • COM(2013) 762 final — Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council 'Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive — Commission Guidance'.
  • COM(2011) 112 — a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050. With its 'Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050', the European Commission is looking beyond the 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95 % by the middle of the century as agreed by European heads of state and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions — power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture — can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
  • COM(2015) 80 final — the Energy Union Package — Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank 'A framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate change policy'. The Energy Union Package establishes a framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate policy. It includes a roadmap that sets actions for security of supply, the internal energy market, energy efficiency, greenhouse gases and research and innovation.
  • Directive (EU) 2018/2002 on energy efficiency.
  • Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the governance of the energy union and climate action — this regulation sets out the necessary legislative foundation for reliable, inclusive, cost-efficient, transparent and predictable governance of the energy union and climate action.

Earlier legislation

In 2009, the Council adopted the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote the use of renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020. The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents:

  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community;
  • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide;
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources;
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01);
  • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community;
  • Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community’s integrated approach to reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles;
  • Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions 'Second Strategic Energy Review — An EU energy and solidarity action plan' (COM(2008) 781 final);
  • strategic review of short-, medium- and long-term targets on EU energy security;
  • Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions 'Sustainable consumption and production and sustainable industrial policy action plan' (COM(2008) 397 final).

The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote sustainable industrial policy.

EEA reference

Targets

The 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive establishes a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20 % energy efficiency target by 2020. Under this directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain, from its production to its final consumption. To reach the EU's 20 % energy efficiency target by 2020, individual EU countries have set their own indicative national energy efficiency targets. Depending on country preferences, these targets are based on primary and/or final energy consumption, primary and/or final energy savings or energy intensity. New national measures have to ensure major energy savings for consumers and industry. To help officials in EU countries implement the Energy Efficiency Directive, the European Commission publishes guidance notes (COM(2013) 762). 

Related policy documents

Key policy question

Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Technical information

  1. Data sources
    Final energy consumption: Eurostat (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data).
    Final energy consumption, non-EEA countries: International Energy Agency (IEA) (http://www.iea.org/statistics/topics/energybalances/).
    Final energy consumption is one of the EEA’s core indicators. More information can be found at http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/about
  2. Description of data/indicator definition
    Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of the final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover the industry, transport, households, services and agriculture sectors.
    The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio of the final energy consumption of that sector to total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator that highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
  3. Geographical coverage
    The EEA had 33 member countries at the time of writing this indicator. These are the 28 EU Member States, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Turkey .
  4. Methodology and frequency of data collection
    Data are collected annually.
    Eurostat metadata: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/index.cfm?TargetUrl=DSP_PUB_WELC
  5. Methodology of data manipulation
    The average annual rate of growth is calculated using the following: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) - 1] × 100.
  6. Coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of indicator
    Numerator: final energy consumption (FC_E) = final energy consumption industry (FC_IND_E) + final energy consumption transport (FC_TRA_E) + final energy consumption households (FC_OTH_HH_E) + final energy consumption commercial and public services (FC_OTH_CP) + final energy consumption agriculture (calculated as final energy consumption agriculture/forestry (FC_OTH_AF_E) + final energy consumption fisheries (FC_OTH_FISH_E) + final energy consumption other sectors (FC_OTH_NSP_E)).
    If needed for calculating shares of total energy consumption, a denominator is used: (total) final energy consumption (FC_E).
    This was done for TOTAL — all products; O4000XBIO — total petroleum products; E7000 — electrical energy; G3000 — natural gas; and C0000X0350-0370 — solid fuels.
  7. Coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of indicator
    • Reports: Energy balances of non-OECD countries and Energy balances of OECD countries.
    • Name: Energy Balances.
    • Products: Total; Flow; and Final Consumption — Flow.
    • Memo: Feedstock use in the petrochemical industry.
  8. Early estimates of 2018 ('approximated' or 'proxy') data for final energy consumption were prepared by the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM); see https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/approximated-estimates-for-the-primary-2

         The estimated indicative national targets for 2020 are based on the national energy efficiency plans for 2018 or earlier if 2018 plans are not available (see https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-directive/national-energy-efficiency-action-plans).


Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling was applied.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Reliability, accuracy, robustness and uncertainty (at data level)

Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption among sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral share also depends on a country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, trends in the absolute values are preferred, as they are a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.

The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes the industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of the agriculture and fisheries sector together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that, according to Eurostat, final energy consumption in agriculture data are not very reliable and mainly reflect consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in energy questionnaires to be more in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines.

Data sets uncertainty

Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)

Officially reported, annually updated data are used, with no obvious weaknesses.

However, from 2019, Eurostat changed the methodology used for calculating energy balances, which changed the energy consumption data compared with previous years. Therefore, this year’s results and those of previous years are less comparable. More information on these changes can be found in the Energy balance guide and an online Eurostat document.

Data have traditionally been compiled by Eurostat through the annual joint questionnaires of Eurostat and the IEA, following a well-established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual joint questionnaires and data compilation can be found on Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics (https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/metadata/de/nrg_quant_esms.htm).

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Stephanie Schilling

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
ENER 016
Specification
Version id: 6
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
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