Emissions and supply of fluorinated greenhouse gases

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: CSI 044 , CLIM 048
Created 15 Nov 2017 Published 06 Jul 2018 Last modified 06 Jul 2018
8 min read
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of the fluorinated greenhouse gases listed below. The indicator also tracks trends since 2007 in the supply of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the shares of major intended applications of EU supply are given for the latest available reporting year. EU supply is a parameter derived from company reporting under the F-gas Regulation that provides information on the actual use of fluorinated greenhouse gases by EU industries. It is focussed on potentially emission-relevant supplies of gases to EU industries and thus does not cover supplies intended for feedstock use or destruction. The lists of gases covered in the supply part of the indicator differ between the 2007-2013 time period and the time period starting 2014. For the time period 2007-2013, only data on supply in bulk are available. (The term 'bulk' refers to shipments of gases contained in gas containers of all sizes, ranging from large ISO containers of several tonnes to small gas bottles of a few grams). Since 2014, supply within products and equipment has been recorded. Both of these add up to total EU supply. Bulk supply is calculated by first adding reported amounts for production bulk imports reclamation stocks from own production or imports held on 1 January of the reporting year and then subtracting the following reported amounts: bulk exports amounts used as feedstock amounts imported for destruction amounts from own production sent for destruction before sales stocks from own production or imports held on 31 December of the reporting year. Supply in products and equipment is the gas content of products and equipment imported and placed on the EU market. List of gases  All listed gases are tracked for emissions since 1990. Gases given in bold are not tracked for supply in all years since 2007. Gases beyond the supply scope only for 2007-2013 are given in italics. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Other perfluorinated gases HFC-23 PFC-14 (CF4) SF6 HFC-32 PFC-116 (C2F6) NF3 HFC-41 PFC-218 (C3F8)   HFC-43-10mee PFC-3-1-10 (C4F10)   HFC-125 PFC-318 (c-C4F8)   HFC-134 PFC-4-1-12 (C5F12)   HFC-134a PFC-5-1-14 (C6F14)   HFC-143 PFC-9-1-18 (C10F18)   HFC-143a PFC-216 (c-C3F6)   HFC-152     HFC-152a     HFC-161     HFC-227ea     HFC-236cb     HFC-236ea     HFC-236fa     HFC-245ca     HFC-245fa     HFC-365mfc     Where the gases above are used or emitted as part of a mixture of gases, the respective shares are accounted for. For tracking HFC consumption under the Montreal Protocol, only the HFC shares of HFC-containing mixtures are accounted for. HFC-161 is excluded from the scope of the Montreal Protocol.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases contribute to global warming and are included in the basket of greenhouse gases addressed in the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol. Fluorinated greenhouse gases presently account for around 3 % of EU-28 overall greenhouse gas emissions, with a long-term rising trend. At the European level, policy measures have been implemented since 2006 to reduce emissions, by:

  • targeting the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing fluorinated gases
  • encouraging increased reclamation of used gases 
  • banning the use of certain high-GWP gases in some applications in which more environmentally superior alternatives are available

Furthermore, phase-down schemes for the use of HFCs have been agreed within the EU in 2014 and globally under the Montreal Protocol in 2016.

As future emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are strongly determined by today’s use, this indicator also looks at supply.

Scientific references

Indicator definition

The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of the fluorinated greenhouse gases listed below. The indicator also tracks trends since 2007 in the supply of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the shares of major intended applications of EU supply are given for the latest available reporting year.

EU supply is a parameter derived from company reporting under the F-gas Regulation that provides information on the actual use of fluorinated greenhouse gases by EU industries. It is focussed on potentially emission-relevant supplies of gases to EU industries and thus does not cover supplies intended for feedstock use or destruction.

The lists of gases covered in the supply part of the indicator differ between the 2007-2013 time period and the time period starting 2014. For the time period 2007-2013, only data on supply in bulk are available. (The term 'bulk' refers to shipments of gases contained in gas containers of all sizes, ranging from large ISO containers of several tonnes to small gas bottles of a few grams). Since 2014, supply within products and equipment has been recorded. Both of these add up to total EU supply.

Bulk supply is calculated by first adding reported amounts for

  • production
  • bulk imports
  • reclamation
  • stocks from own production or imports held on 1 January of the reporting year

and then subtracting the following reported amounts:

  • bulk exports
  • amounts used as feedstock
  • amounts imported for destruction
  • amounts from own production sent for destruction before sales
  • stocks from own production or imports held on 31 December of the reporting year.

Supply in products and equipment is the gas content of products and equipment imported and placed on the EU market.

List of gases 

All listed gases are tracked for emissions since 1990. Gases given in bold are not tracked for supply in all years since 2007. Gases beyond the supply scope only for 2007-2013 are given in italics.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

Other perfluorinated gases

HFC-23

PFC-14 (CF4)

SF6

HFC-32

PFC-116 (C2F6)

NF3

HFC-41

PFC-218 (C3F8)

 

HFC-43-10mee

PFC-3-1-10 (C4F10)

 

HFC-125

PFC-318 (c-C4F8)

 

HFC-134

PFC-4-1-12 (C5F12)

 

HFC-134a

PFC-5-1-14 (C6F14)

 

HFC-143

PFC-9-1-18 (C10F18)

 

HFC-143a

PFC-216 (c-C3F6)

 

HFC-152

 

 

HFC-152a

 

 

HFC-161

 

 

HFC-227ea

 

 

HFC-236cb

 

 

HFC-236ea

 

 

HFC-236fa

 

 

HFC-245ca

 

 

HFC-245fa

 

 

HFC-365mfc

 

 

Where the gases above are used or emitted as part of a mixture of gases, the respective shares are accounted for. For tracking HFC consumption under the Montreal Protocol, only the HFC shares of HFC-containing mixtures are accounted for. HFC-161 is excluded from the scope of the Montreal Protocol.

Units

The units used in this indicator are:

Mt CO2 equivalent (GWP AR4). Million tonnes of COequivalent calculated with the global warming potentials (GWPs) as given in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. For tracking progress under the HFC phase-down of the EU F-gas Regulation, mixtures containing HFCs are included in the scope of the phase-down. The GWP of the mixture includes the GWP of non-HFC constituent gases according to Annex IV of the Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 (F-gas Regulation).

Intended applications. Percentages based on GWP AR4 weighted tonnage.

Policy context and targets

Context description

Fluorinated gases contribute to global warming and emissions of fluorinated gases, which are not covered by the Montreal Protocol, are included under the UNFCCC. Since 2015, emission reporting for the full time series since 1990 has been made according to the 2006 IPCC guidelines and uses the GWPs of the 4th IPCC Assessment report (AR4). For a list of fluorinated gases reportable under the UNFCCC, please refer to the indicator definition. Companies reporting under the 'old' EU F-gas Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 842/2006, applicable 2007-2014) and under the revised ‘new’ F-gas Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 517/2014, applicable since 2015), cover an extended list of fluorinated gases. In order to maintain consistency, in this indicator only those fluorinated gases are tracked for supply which are also reportable under the UNFCCC.

At the European level two key legislative instruments focus on fluorinated gases:

  • Regulation No 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation No 842/2006 (F-gas Regulation); and
  • Directive 2006/40/EC relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles (MAC Directive)

The F-gas Regulation follows several tracks:

  • Improving the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing F-gases. Measures comprise: labelling of equipment containing fluorinated gases, training and certification of personnel and companies handling these types of gas, containment of gases within equipment and proper recovery of gases from equipment that is no longer used.
  • Avoiding the use of fluorinated gases in some applications in which more environmentally superior alternatives are already cost-effective: Measures include restrictions on the use and marketing of fluorinated gases in these cases.
  • Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected from a new measure, which will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down').

The MAC Directive requires gradual phase-out of F-gases with GWP >150 in new systems in the period 2011-2017 in the EU.

At the global level, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP) was amended to regulate HFCs in October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda, ('Kigali Amendment'). Both developed and developing countries have taken on mandatory commitments to reduce production and consumption of HFCs in the next three decades. Under the amended Protocol, for the EU and other developed countries, HFC consumption is limited to 90 % of the baseline starting in 2019, with further reduction steps until a 15 % level is reached from 2036 onwards.

Targets

In the framework of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, no separate target for fluorinated greenhouse gases has been specified.

In the EU context, the revised 'new' F-gas Regulation 517/2014 aims to reduce emissions by two-thirds of the 2010 level by 2030.

Related policy documents

  • Directive 2006/40/EC
    Directive 2006/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC
  • Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997
  • Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases
    The 'old' F-gases regulation follows two tracks of action: Improving the prevention of leaks from equipment containing F-gases. Measures comprise: containment of gases and proper recovery of equipment; training and certification of personnel and of companies handling these gases; labeling of equipment containing F-gases; reporting on imports, exports and production of F-gases.  Avoiding F-gases in some applications where environmentally superior alternatives are cost-effective. Measures include restrictions on the marketing and use of certain products and equipment containing F-gases. The Regulation has been supplemented by 10 implementing acts or 'Commission Regulations' (see Documentation tab above). Furthermore, reporting provisions have been introduced to facilitate monitoring of the Regulation's measures and ensure that its objectives are being met.
  • Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006
    The 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 maintains many measures of the 'old' F-Gas Regulation 842/2006, in particular related to leak prevention, recovery, certification of technicians and selected restrictions on the use and marketing of F-gases. Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected from a new measure, which will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down'). Reductions are also expected from bans of F-gases with a high Global Warming Potential (GWP).
  • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
    The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: The  Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Key policy question

What progress is being made in reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases?

Specific policy question

How is the supply of fluorinated greenhouse gases to the EU market developing?

Specific policy question

In which sectors are fluorinated greenhouse gases used?

Specific policy question

What is the EU progress in phasing-down HFCs?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

The indicator presents GWP-weighted emissions of fluorinated gases as officially reported by the EU-28 Member States.

Furthermore, the indicator presents the aggregated EU supply in units of million tonnes of CO2 equivalents, which is the physical amount of supplied gases, multiplied by their respective global warming potential. Data are based on company reporting under Article 6 of the 'old' F-gas Regulation 842/2006 and Article 19 of the ‘new’ F-gas Regulation 517/2014.

For the time period 2007-2013 (reporting under the ‘old’ F-gas Regulation 842/2006), only data on supply in bulk are available. Since 2014 (reporting under the ‘new’ F-gas regulation 517/2014), supply within products and equipment is recorded as well, both add up to total EU supply.

Bulk supply is calculated by first adding reported amounts for

  • production
  • bulk imports
  • reclamation
  • stocks from own production or imports held on 1 January of the reporting year

and then subtracting the following reported amounts:

  • bulk exports
  • amounts used as feedstock
  • amounts imported for destruction
  • amounts from own production sent for destruction before sales
  • stocks from own production or imports held on 31 December of the reporting year.

Supply in products and equipment is the gas content of products and equipment imported and placed on the EU market.

For progress under the EU HFC-phase-down, quota relevant placing on the market (POM) is calculated as follows for all HFCs and mixtures containing HFCs, physical mass converted into CO2 equivalents using the GWPs of the 4th IPCC Assessment Report.

  • Quota relevant POM = quota-relevant physical POM + issued authorisations + imported refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACHP) equipment, where not covered by quota authorisations held by the importer
    • quota relevant physical POM (relevant starting 2015) = physical POM as given in section 4M of the reporting questionnaire – exempted quantities as given in section 5J of the reporting questionnaire
    • Issued authorisations (relevant starting 2015) are given in section 9A of the reporting questionnaire
    • imported refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACHP) equipment, where not covered by quota authorisations held by the importer (relevant starting 2017) = calculated amount of imported hydrofluorocarbons in need of authorisation to use HFC quota (as given in section 13D of the reporting questionnaire) - available authorisations, including delegations of authorisations (as given in section 13A of the reporting questionnaire)

Under the Montreal Protocol, the HFC phase-down is framed for consumption of HFCs. Consumption is calculated as production + bulk imports – bulk exports – destruction – feedstock use of HFCs.

All information provided to the European Commission and the EEA on transactions of F-gases in the EU is treated as strictly confidential. The Commission and the EEA have established procedures to ensure that all of the data relating to individual companies will be kept strictly confidential. No company-specific information is disclosed to the public; all company data are aggregated before publication. These procedures limit the release of data that might significantly rely on reports from less than three company groups. To this end, company groups that contribute to less than 5 % do not count towards the '3-company-rule'. Concerns over confidentiality can be addressed to the European Commission or to the entity designated by the European Commission.

Methodology for gap filling

No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

External data references

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sets uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CSI 044
CLIM 048
Specification
Version id: 2

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)

Related content

Data references used

Data used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100