Urban wastewater treatment

Figure Created 12 Nov 2009 Published 12 Nov 2009 Last modified 29 Nov 2012
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Only countries with data from all periods included



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Number of countries in brackets. Northern: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland; Western: Austria, Ireland, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark; Southern: Greece, Spain. Primary wastewater treatment removes part of the suspended solids, but no ammonium; secondary (biological) treatment uses aerobic or anaerobic micro-organisms, retains 20 % to 30 % of the nutrients and removes around 75 % ammonium; tertiary treatment includes phosphorus retention and in some cases nitrogen removal.

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