Threat status of EU species

Figure Created 08 Jul 2011 Published 13 Jul 2012 Last modified 06 Nov 2017
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Red list status of amphibians, terrestrial mammals, marine mammals, reptiles, butterflies and dragonflies in EU.

European data


Additional information


  • More than 20 % of the amphibians found in the EU are considered threatened and a further 18 % are considered near threatened.
  • All amphibian species considered threatened (critically endangered, endangered og vulnurable) at EU level are endemic to the European continent and are found nowhere else in the world.
  • Habitat loss, fragmentation and degeneration are the most significant threats to amphibians in Europe.


  • Nearly one in of terrestrial Europe's mammal species are threatened and a further 11 % are close to qualifying for threatened status.
  • Two European mammal species have become globally extinct since AD 1 500 (the aurochs Bos primigenius and the Sardinian pike Prolagus sardus) and a third species is regionally extinct (the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus).
  • Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to terrestrial mammals in Europe, whilst the main threat to marine mammals are accidental mortality, pollution and over-exploitation.


  • Approximately one fifth of reptiles are considered threatened in Europe and a further 12 % are considered near threatened.
  • The majority of threatened and near threatened reptile species, all critically endangered species and the vast majority of endangered and vulnurable species are endemic to both Europe and the EU.
  • Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are the greatest threats to reptiles in Europe.


  • Approximately 7 % of butterflies are considered threatened in Europe and a further 11 % are considered near threatened.
  • Two butterfly species have become regionally extinct in recent years (Aricia hyacinthus and Tomares nogelii).
  • The main current threat is the loss of their habitats or habitat connectivity due to changes in agricultural practices (intensification or abandonment).
  • Dragonflies
  • Approximately 16 % of dragonflies are considered threatened in Europe and a futher 13 % are considered near threatened.
  • The main current threat is desiccation of their habitats.


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage