The average summer season intensity of urban heat island (°C) and the projected number of extreme heatwaves in near future (2020-2052; RCP8.5)

Figure Created 05 Aug 2020 Published 05 Aug 2020 Last modified 29 Jan 2023
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The map presents the projected number of exreme heatwaves in the near future across Europe and the summer intensity of the urban heat island effect in 100 European cities.

European data


Additional information

The intensity of UHI was estimated for 100 European cities in the framework of the Copernicus European Health contract for the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). High resolution (100m) hourly temperature (2008-2017) was simulated with the urban climate model UrbClim (De Ridder et al., 2015). Summer season is June, July and August. The intensity of UHI is represented by spatial P90 (90th percentile) UHI intensity of a given city. This indicator is calculated by subtracting the rural (non-water) spatial P10 (10th percentile) temperature value from the average, height-corrected (to exclude terrain effects), air temperature map. For information on individual cities and detailed modelling of the UHIs for the 100 European cities see the Urban Adaptation Map Viewer.
Source: Author’s compilation based on EEA (2019e) and VITO (2019)


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage



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Filed under: climate change, adaptation
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