Pathways of introduction of non-indigenous species to Europe’s seas, 1970-2020

Figure Created 05 Jan 2023 Published 24 Feb 2023 Last modified 24 Feb 2023
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The pie chart shows the share of the different pathways of introduction of new non-indigenous species (NIS) to Europe's seas over the years 1970 to 2020. The category 'Other' includes several modes of introduction, namely 'Transport-stowaway: other', 'release in nature', 'escape from confinement', 'corridor' and 'unknown'. The stacked column chart shows the trend in the number of new NIS by pathway of introduction between 1970 and 2017, on a 6-year cycle. While introductions by Transport-Stowaway (ballast water, hull fouling and others) remain the prevalent mode, 'unaided' and 'escape from confinement' have grown in importance in the latest assessment cycles.

European data


Additional information

  • The pie chart shows the proportions of NIS introduced between 1970 and 2020 through various dispersal pathways.
  • The column chart shows the contribution of each pathway per 6-year interval since 1970. The 'Unknown' category is not included to highlight the modes of introduction that have been detected.


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage


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