Estimated number of people per 100,000 highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed by noise from road, rail and air traffic in the EEA countries (excluding Türkiye) in 2017

Figure Created 29 Jun 2022 Published 04 Jul 2022 Last modified 04 Jul 2022
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European data


Additional information

• The risk of developing negative health effects when exposure is long-term start to occur below the END thresholds. WHO recommends reducing noise levels to 53 dB Lden and 45 dB Lnight for road traffic, 54 dB Lden and 44 dB Lnight for rail traffic, and 45 dB Lden and 40 dB Lnight for air traffic.

• This chart is based on data officially reported by countries under the EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). There are inconsistencies across countries as Member States were allowed to use their own national methods. For instance, in some urban areas such as Luxembourg all streets are mapped, whereas in other cities only the busiest streets are mapped.

• There may be double counting in locations where there is exposure from multiple sources. It is estimated that double counting is less than 13% for high annoyance and 16% for high sleep disturbance (ETC/ACM, 2018).

• High annoyance and sleep disturbance are prevalent cases.

• Methodology for estimating missing data, by ETC/ATNI 2020 (

• Methodology used for calculating health impacts from noise based on the data reported under the Environmental Noise Directive (END), by ETC/ACM 2018.(


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage



Filed under: human health, transport, noise
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