Estimated number of people highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed by noise from road, rail and aircraft traffic based on EU Environmental Noise Directive thresholds in the EU-27 and zero pollution target for 2030

Figure Created 29 Jun 2022 Published 04 Jul 2022 Last modified 22 Aug 2022
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Data submitted by countries up to 01/01/2021

European data


Additional information

- The risk of developing negative health effects when exposure is long term start to occur below the END thresholds. WHO recommends reducing noise levels to 53dB Lden and 45dB Lnight for road traffic, 54dB Lden and 44dB Lnight for rail traffic, and 45dB Lden and 40dB Lnight for air traffic.

- This chart is based on data officially reported by countries under the EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). There are inconsistencies across countries, as Member States were allowed to use their own national methods.

- There may be double counting in locations where there is exposure from multiple sources. It is estimated that double counting is less than 13% for high annoyance and less than 16% for high sleep disturbance (ETC/ACM, 2018).

- High annoyance and sleep disturbance are prevalent cases. Values are rounded

- Methodology for estimating missing data, by ETC/ATNI 2020 (

- Methodology used for calculating health impacts from noise based on the data reported under the Environmental Noise Directive (END), by ETC/ACM 2018.(


Geographic coverage

Temporal coverage



Filed under: human health, noise, transport
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