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Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe's ecosystems: progress and challenges

We depend on healthy and resilient ecosystems to continue to deliver services, such as food, water, clean air and stable climate, which are essential for our well-being. This report provides an overview about the current condition of ecosystems in Europe and the human pressures they are exposed to. A ecosystem map for Europe reveals that many ecosystems are highly concentrated in a small number of countries, which could increase their vulnerability to environmental change, and a substantial proportion of the most vulnerable ecosystems are not protected within Natura 2000 sites, Marine Protected Areas or equivalent zones.

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Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration — TERM 2015: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

The report analyses the evolution of the transport sector (freight and passenger) and its pressures on the environment since 2000, including the impacts of the economic recession in 2008. It makes use of the latest available data in order to assess key trends, measures and overall progress in meeting policy targets. It concludes that a fundamental decarbonisation of the transport sector will require not just technological solutions but also policies that stimulate significant behavioural changes, including the correct pricing of transport externalities and planning approaches that stimulate the use of sustainable modes of transport.

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Fluorinated greenhouse gases 2014

Summary of data reported by companies on the production, import and export of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the European Union. This report is based on submissions for 2014, the first reporting year under the new F-Gas Regulation 517/2014. The new regulation requires, among other things, that companies report on produced, imported and exported quantities of fluorinated greenhouse gases, including mixtures.

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Overview of reported national policies and measures on climate change mitigation in Europe in 2015

Information reported by Member States under the European Union Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. The report presents a synthesis of the information on climate change mitigation policies and measures (PaMs) reported in 2015 by EU Member States. It aims to provide an overview of the main characteristics of the PaMs implemented, adopted or planned by Member States, such as their objective, type, targeted sectors, entities responsible for their implementation, etc.

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National monitoring, reporting and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe

This report provides new insights into adaptation monitoring, reporting and evaluation systems at the national level in Europe and constitutes the first attempt to consolidate emerging information across European countries. It aims to offer reliable and targeted information to support the effective and efficient implementation of climate adaptation policies and actions at the national level in Europe.

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Different emission estimates by EU bodies/institutions

EU GHG inventory submission to UNFCCC (EEA and DG Climate Action)

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Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2013 and inventory report 2015

This report is the annual submission of the greenhouse gas inventory of the European Union to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It presents the greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2013 for the EU-28 individual Member States by IPCC sector.

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Trends and projections in Europe 2015 — Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets

The 2015 edition of the annual European Environment Agency (EEA) 'Trends and projections' report provides an updated assessment of the progress of the European Union (EU) and European countries towards their climate mitigation and energy targets. The assessment of Member States’ progress towards their climate and energy targets is based on: national data on GHG emissions, renewable energy and energy consumption for 2013; and projections reported by Member States concerning expected trends in greenhouse gas emissions until 2035. The report also presents preliminary ('approximated' or 'proxy') data for the year 2014. The report supports and complements the annual assessment, by the European Commission, of the progress of the EU and its Member States towards meeting the Kyoto and EU 2020 objectives, as required by EU regulation (the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation).

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Exploring nature-based solutions — The role of green infrastructure in mitigating the impacts of weather- and climate change-related natural hazards

This report focuses on certain types of extreme events and natural hazards at European scale that will be very likely amplified by ongoing climate change, i.e. landslides, avalanches, floods and storm surges. In addition, the report also touches upon the green infrastructure and ecosystem services contributing to global climate regulation. The analysis is carried out using spatially explicit data centred on the physical capacity of ecosystems to deliver services that can mitigate natural hazard risks.

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Ozone-depleting substances 2014

Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union. This document summarises the data reported under the ODS Regulation for the year 2014, and looks at the major trends since 2006.

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Assessment of global megatrends — extended background analysis

The purpose of this technical report is to complement the SOER 2015's Assessment of global megatrends by providing substantially more in-depth information and data on each megatrend. It covers aspects and topics that were given less attention — or no mention at all — in the SOER 2015 Assessment of global megatrends. It also provides background information on the research framework and processes that have underpinned EEA work on megatrends since 2009. The goal of this report is to stimulate thinking, spark discussion and thought, and encourage strategic decision-makers in Europe to consider emerging threats and opportunities, and ensure that policy is 'fit for the long term'. Essentially, it aims to trigger questions about what global developments should be accounted for in order to ensure that environmental policy is relevant, adequate and resilient.

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EEA Signals 2015 - Living in a changing climate

Signals 2015 focuses on climate change: Our climate is changing. Global average temperatures are increasing, sea levels are rising, precipitation patterns are changing, and extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and severe. In a series of short articles and interviews, Signals 2015 presents an overview of what causes climate change and what climate change means for human health, the environment, and the economy.

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NEC Directive status report 2014

Reporting by Member States under Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants

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Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe

As adaptation policy progresses in Europe, it is increasingly important, that people have access to relevant and high quality information. A broad range of users consider web-based adaptation platforms an effective means of collecting and sharing experiences and knowledge to interested stakeholders including policymakers, practioners and the general public. The report provides an overview on the state of play of most adaptation platform in Europe including 14 national adaptation platforms. It offers information on the scope, history, targeted users, the selection and presentation of knowledge, the links to other topics, scales and platforms as well as the monitoring and evaluation of the platforms. It also analyses existing and potential links of the platforms to climate services and Disaster risk reduction (DRR) platforms.

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Projections in hindsight

An assessment of past emission projections reported by Member States under EU air pollution and GHG legislation

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Application of the EU Emissions Trading Directive

Analysis of national responses under Article 21 of the EU ETS Directive in 2014

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Global megatrend update 9: Increasingly severe consequences of climate change

In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment's state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA updated each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately. In mid-2015 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report.

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Adaptation of transport to climate change in Europe

Challenges and options across transport modes and stakeholders. This report explores current climate change adaptation practices concerning transport across European countries. It provides an overview on the challenges and state adaptation action, a review of a number of initiatives in different countries, and conclusions on a potential way forward. Its purpose is to stimulate discussions among the many different stakeholders concerned with transport adaptation. Opening the perspective on the transport system and sector as a whole should inspire and encourage learning from practices across modes and areas of responsibility and support efforts to mainstream adaptation within transport-related policy and practices. The factual information collected is based on data available in the Climate-ADAPT information platform, a literature review, case studies provided by many stakeholders, and a questionnaire on transport and adaptation addressed to EEA member countries in 2013.

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Monitoring CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013

This report presents final data for both vehicle types, updating preliminary data published earlier in 2014.

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