10 messages for 2010 — protected areas

Protected areas provide a wide range of services in a context of increasing pressures and a rapidly changing environment. Europe is the region with the greatest number of protected areas in the world but they are relatively small in size. Europe's Natura 2000, unique in the world and still young, and the Emerald network under development, are international European networks of protected areas that catalyse biodiversity conservation.

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Ecosystem accounting and the cost of biodiversity losses — the case of coastal Mediterranean wetlands

This report focuses on ways we can use land and ecosystem accounting techniques to describe and monitor the consequences of biodiversity loss in the coastal wetlands of the Mediterranean. These ecosystems are characterised by the close coupling of economic, social and ecological processes, and any accounting system has to represent how these key elements are linked and change over time. This report discusses the importance of estimating the ecological and social costs of maintaining these systems, and the problems surrounding providing monetary estimates of the services associated with wetlands. It also shows how individual wetland socio-ecological systems (SES) can be defined and mapped using the remotely sensed land cover information from Corine Land Cover.

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Distribution and targeting of the CAP budget from a biodiversity perspective

The EU has highlighted the importance of using the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) to prevent the abandonment of high nature value farmland and its intensification as a key action to halt biodiversity decline. The present report sets out to assess whether the current distribution of CAP funds is likely to favour the maintenance of farmland with high nature value (HNV). And it explores the extent to which CAP funds are likely to support the long-term economic and ecological sustainability of these HNV farming systems.

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Territorial cohesion — Analysis of environmental aspects of the EU Cohesion Policy in selected countries

Territorial cohesion — Analysis of environmental aspects of the EU Cohesion Policy in selected countries

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Diverting waste from landfill - Effectiveness of waste-management policies in the European Union

Issued in 1999, the Landfill Directive marked a decisive shift from landfill towards the EU's new waste hierarchy, which prioritises waste prevention, followed by re-use, recycling and recovery, and seeks to avoid landfilling wherever feasible. The Landfill Directive set targets for progressively reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste landfilled in the period to 2016. A decade on from the Landfill Directive's enactment seems a fitting time to review progress and extract key lessons for policy-makers in Europe and elsewhere. Through individual and comparative analyses of waste management in five countries and one sub-national region (Estonia, Finland, the Flemish Region of Belgium, Germany, Hungary and Italy), as well as an econometric analysis of the EU–25 Member States, this report seeks to answer a number of important questions, including: To what extent was waste management practice changed in the last decade? How much of the change was due to the Landfill Directive (and other EU instruments)? What measures and institutional arrangements did countries introduce? Which measures and arrangements proved most effective in different national and regional contexts?

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Application of the Emissions Trading Directive by EU Member States — reporting year 2008

According to Article 21 of the Emissions Trading Directive, Member States shall report annually on its application. The reporting obligation allows the Commission to continuously follow the implementation of the Directive and provides information for the Commission's review report under Article 30 of the Directive. By late October 2008, Article 21 reports had been received from all Member States. The responses in those reports were assessed by the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) and compiled into this report.

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Effectiveness of environmental taxes and charges for managing sand, gravel and rock extraction in selected EU countries

With the aim of getting practical experience in undertaking ex post policy effectiveness evaluations and to provide support in selected policy areas, this report is considered a further step in that work.

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Environmental technology atlas

Environmental technology atlas

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The thematic accuracy of Corine land cover 2000 - Assessment using LUCAS

Assessment using LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey)

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EEA report 1/2006 - Using the market for cost-effective environmental policy

This summary report and the larger report on which it is based ("Market-based instruments for environmental policy in Europe") include an overview of the use and experience of environmental taxes and charges, emissions trading schemes, subsidies, deposit-refund systems, and liability and compensation requirements, as tools for achieving environmental objectives in the whole European area.

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Policy effectiveness evaluation

Policy effectiveness evaluation helps to raise important questions about environmental policies: Are they working? Are they costeffective? If not, how can they be improved? By evaluating effectiveness we can provide support to environmental policies, and respond to the information needs of EEA clients. Effectiveness evaluation also provides an important feedback mechanism in the policy cycle. It is an essential tool to improve understanding of the difference that environmental policies make in the broader context of sustainable development.

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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