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Diverting waste from landfill - Effectiveness of waste-management policies in the European Union

Issued in 1999, the Landfill Directive marked a decisive shift from landfill towards the EU's new waste hierarchy, which prioritises waste prevention, followed by re-use, recycling and recovery, and seeks to avoid landfilling wherever feasible. The Landfill Directive set targets for progressively reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste landfilled in the period to 2016. A decade on from the Landfill Directive's enactment seems a fitting time to review progress and extract key lessons for policy-makers in Europe and elsewhere. Through individual and comparative analyses of waste management in five countries and one sub-national region (Estonia, Finland, the Flemish Region of Belgium, Germany, Hungary and Italy), as well as an econometric analysis of the EU–25 Member States, this report seeks to answer a number of important questions, including: To what extent was waste management practice changed in the last decade? How much of the change was due to the Landfill Directive (and other EU instruments)? What measures and institutional arrangements did countries introduce? Which measures and arrangements proved most effective in different national and regional contexts?

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Application of the Emissions Trading Directive by EU Member States — reporting year 2008

According to Article 21 of the Emissions Trading Directive, Member States shall report annually on its application. The reporting obligation allows the Commission to continuously follow the implementation of the Directive and provides information for the Commission's review report under Article 30 of the Directive. By late October 2008, Article 21 reports had been received from all Member States. The responses in those reports were assessed by the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) and compiled into this report.

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Effectiveness of environmental taxes and charges for managing sand, gravel and rock extraction in selected EU countries

With the aim of getting practical experience in undertaking ex post policy effectiveness evaluations and to provide support in selected policy areas, this report is considered a further step in that work.

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The thematic accuracy of Corine land cover 2000 - Assessment using LUCAS

Assessment using LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey)

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Air quality and ancillary benefits of climate change policies

The Thematic Strategy on air pollution aims to improve European air pollution significantly by 2020. This report from the European Environment Agency looks a further ten years into the future, and brings together two major policy challenges — combating climate change and reducing air pollution — in an integrated way. Thus, the report analyses projected changes in European air quality up to 2030, and explores the possible benefits of climate policies on air quality and the costs of air pollution abatement.

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Policy effectiveness evaluation

Policy effectiveness evaluation helps to raise important questions about environmental policies: Are they working? Are they costeffective? If not, how can they be improved? By evaluating effectiveness we can provide support to environmental policies, and respond to the information needs of EEA clients. Effectiveness evaluation also provides an important feedback mechanism in the policy cycle. It is an essential tool to improve understanding of the difference that environmental policies make in the broader context of sustainable development.

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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