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The emissions of a number of compounds categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) decreased between 1990 and 2014 in the EEA-33, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by 95 %, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by 71 %, dioxins and furans by 85 % and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by 60 %.
Although the majority of countries report that POP emissions fell during this period, some report that emissions increased.
In 2014, the most significant sources of emissions for these POPs included the ‘Commercial, institutional and households’ (13 % of HCB, 39 % of dioxins and furans, 54 % of PAHs and 15 % of PCBs) and ‘Industrial processes and product use’ (16 % of HCB and 51 % of PCBs) sectors.
Anthropogenic emissions of the main air pollutants decreased significantly in most EEA member countries between 1990 and 2014:
emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) decreased by 51 % (55 % in the EU-28);
emissions of sulphur oxides (SO x ) decreased by 80 % (88 % in the EU-28);
emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) decreased by 57 % (60 % in the EU-28);
emissions of ammonia (NH 3 ) decreased by 11 % (24 % in the EU-28);
emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) decreased by 36 % (36 % in the EU-28).
The EU-28 met its continuing obligation to maintain emissions of NO x , SO x , NH 3 and NMVOCs below legally binding targets, as specified by the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD). A number of EU Member States reported emissions that were above their NECD emission ceilings: three countries (Austria, Ireland and Luxembourg) exceeded emission ceilings for NO x , five (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain) exceeded emission ceilings for NH 3 and two (Ireland and Luxembourg) exceeded emission ceilings for NMVOCs. There are no emission ceilings for primary PM 2.5 .
Three additional EEA member countries (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) had emission ceilings for 2010 that were set in the Gothenburg Protocol under the 1979 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Liechtenstein and Norway reported emissions above their NH 3 ceilings.
Emission reduction commitments for 2020 have been set under the revised Gothenburg Protocol for NO x , SO x , NMVOC, NH 3 and PM 2.5 . The EU-28 as a whole is on track to meet its reduction commitments.
Across the EEA-33 countries, emissions of lead decreased by 92 %, mercury by 73 % and cadmium by 66 % between 1990 and 2014.
Across the EEA-33 countries, emissions of lead from the road transport sector decreased by 98 % between 1990 and 2014. Nevertheless, the road transport sector still remains an important source of lead, contributing around 15 % of total lead emissions in the EEA-33 region. The largest sources are industrial processes and product use, which together account for 23 % of emissions. However, since 2004, little progress has been made in reducing emissions further; 99 % of the total reduction in emissions of lead from 1990 levels had been achieved by 2004.
It is still a challenge to achieve good air quality levels in Europe, especially in urban areas with high volumes of road traffic.
Despite considerable improvements over recent decades, air pollution is still responsible for around 467 000 premature deaths in Europe each year. It also continues to damage vegetation and ecosystems.
Transport contributes significantly to the emission of many air pollutants and the resulting poor air quality, particularly in urban areas with high road traffic volumes.
The annual EU limit value for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), one of the main air quality pollutants of concern and typically associated with vehicle emissions, was widely exceeded across Europe in 2014, with 94 % of all exceedances occurring at roadside monitoring locations.
In 2014, 16 % of the EU-28 urban population were exposed to PM 10 levels above the EU daily limit value, whereas 8 % were exposed to PM 2.5 levels above the EU target value. In 2014, transport also contributed to 15 % and 24 % of the total PM 10 and PM 2.5 primary emissions, respectively, in the EU Member States. Non-exhaust emissions are estimated to be about 50 % of the exhaust emissions of primary PM 10 and about 34 % of those of primary PM 2.5 .
Between 1990 and 2014, the transport sector reduced significantly emissions of certain air pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (both around 83 %), nitrogen oxides ( NO x ) (39 %), sulphur oxides ( SO x ) (42 %) and particulate matter (37 % in the case of PM 2.5 and 31 % for PM 10 ).
Emission reductions from road transport have been lower than originally anticipated over the last two decades, partly because transport has grown more than expected, and for certain pollutants partly owing to the larger than expected growth in diesel vehicles producing higher NOx and PM emissions than petrol-fuelled vehicles. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that ‘real-world emissions of NOx, particularly from diesel passenger cars and vans, generally exceed the permitted European emission (Euro) standards which define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in the EU Member States.
Emissions of all pollutants decreased in 2014 compared with the previous year. NO x emissions decreased by 1 % , SO x by 10 % , and PM 10 and PM 2.5 by 2 % and 3 % respectively. The latest data show that non-exhaust emissions of primary PM 10 and PM 2.5 such as from tyre and brake-wear, make up 16 % and 27 % of total transport emissions of these pollutants, respectively.
All transport modes have reduced emissions since 1990, except for international aviation and shipping for which CO, NOx, SOx, PM 2.5 emissions of each pollutant have increased.
Air quality in Europe is slowly improving. However, between 2000 and 2014, a significant proportion of the urban population in the EU-28 was exposed to concentrations of certain air pollutants above the EU limit or target values. The numbers of people exposed were even higher in relation to the more stringent World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline values set for the protection of human health.
For fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), 8 - 17 % of the urban population were exposed to concentrations in excess of the EU target value, while 85 - 97 % were exposed to concentrations above the WHO guideline value (for 2006-2014 only).
For particulate matter (PM 10 ), the respective exposure estimates were 16 - 42% for the EU limit value and 50 - 92 % for the WHO guideline value.
For ozone (O 3 ), estimates was 8 - 55 % for the EU target value and 94 - 99 % for the WHO guideline value.
For nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), estimates were 7 - 31 % in both cases (EU limit value and WHO guideline).
For benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), estimates were 17 - 24 % for the EU target value and 81 - 91 % for the estimated reference level (for 2008-2014 only).
In the EU-28, critical loads for acidification were exceeded in 7 % of the ecosystem area in 2010, down from 43 % in 1980 (and decreased to 7 % of the ecosystem area across all EEA member countries). There are still some areas where the interim objective for reducing acidification, as defined in the EU's National Emission Ceilings Directive, has not been met.
The EU-28 ecosystem area in which the critical loads for eutrophication were exceeded peaked at 84 % in 1990 and decreased to 63 % in 2010 (55 % in the EEA member countries). The area in exceedance is projected to further decrease to 54 % in 2020 for the EU-28 (48 % in the EEA member countries), assuming current legislation is implemented. The magnitude of the exceedances is also projected to decline considerably in most areas, except for a few 'hot spot' areas in western France and the border areas between the Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, as well as in northern Italy.
Looking forward, only 4 % of the EU-28 ecosystem area (3 % in EEA member countries) is projected to exceed acidification critical loads in 2020 if current legislation is fully implemented. The eutrophication reduction target set in the updated EU air pollution strategy proposed by the European Commission in late 2013, will be met by 2030 if it is assumed that all maximum technically feasible reduction measures are implemented, but it will not be met by current legislation.
For ozone, most of Europe's vegetation and agricultural crops are exposed to ozone levels that exceed the long term objective specified in the EU's Air Quality Directive. A significant fraction is also exposed to levels above the target value threshold defined in the directive. During the past five years, the fractions of agricultural crops above the target value were the lowest since 1996. In 2013, the fraction decreased to around the 21 %, compared with a relative peak of 27 % in 2012 . The effect-related concentrations show large year-to-year variations. Over the period 1996-2013, exposure increased until 2006, after which it decreased.
During the past five years, around two-thirds of the forest area was exposed to ozone concentrations above the critical level set by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ( UNECE) for the protection of forests.
There was no discernible trend in European ozone concentrations between 2003 and 2012, in terms of the annual mean of the daily maximum eight hour average measured at any type of station.
It is difficult to attribute observed ozone exceedences, or changes therein, to individual causes such as climate change.
Future climate change is expected to increase ozone concentrations, but this increase should not exceed 5 µg/m 3 by the middle of the century and would therefore likely be outweighed by reductions in ozone levels due to planned future emissions reductions.
End of the century projections for the effects of climate change involve an increase of up to 8 µg/m 3 in ozone concentrations .
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/indicators or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 27 Mar 2017, 11:14 AM
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