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COM(2006) 545

Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

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Overview of the European energy system Overview of the European energy system Energy flows in European Union The Sankey diagram (Fig.1) shows the energy conversion from primary energy (coal, oil, natural gas, etc) to secondary energy commodities such as heat, electricity and manufactured fuels, through transformation plants (power stations, district heating, CHPs, oil refineries and other transformation plants) and the associated conversion losses. The right hand side of the diagram shows the final mix of energy consumption by different EU27 energy users (including: industry, transport, domestic, other final consumers and non-energy use). Note that renewables in transport for ENER 36 include all biofuels whether sustainable or not. Only a proportion of the primary energy entering the energy system of a country flows through to the end user for consumption.  There are various diversions and losses incurred before energy reaches the final consumer due to distribution losses and use in the energy sector. The Sankey diagram is useful in capturing the situation in a certain year but other indicators are needed to show the change in energy use over time. Energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production Output from conventional thermal stations consists of gross electricity generation and also of any heat sold to third parties (combined heat and power plants) by conventional thermal public utility power stations as well as autoproducer thermal power stations. The energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity production (which includes both public plants and autoproducers) is defined as the ratio of electricity and heat production to the energy input as a fuel. Fuels include solid fuels (i.e. coal, lignite and equivalents, oil and other liquid hydrocarbons, gas, thermal renewables (industrial and municipal waste, wood waste, biogas and geothermal energy) and other non-renewable waste. Units: Fuel input and electrical and heat output are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Efficiency is measured as the ratio of fuel output to input (%) Energy losses in transformation and distribution Numerator: Share of energy losses is the sum of own consumption of the energy industry, distribution losses and transformation losses (difference between transformation input and output). Denominator: Numerator plus final energy available for final consumption in primary energy. EU-27 Share of primary energy by fuel type and, share of final energy consumption by sector Total energy consumption or gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year (Fig.2). Units: Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage. EU27 net energy imports of solid fuels, oil, and gas from outside the EU27 was calculated as follows: total imports by fuel minus the sum of imports by fuel from other EU Member States minus total exports (Fig.1)
Progress on energy efficiency in Europe Progress on energy efficiency in Europe The ODEX index (Fig.1) measures the energy efficiency progress by main sector (industry, transport, households) and for the whole economy (all final consumers). For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; sub-sectors being industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes. The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units and selected so as to provide the best “proxy” of energy efficiency progress, from a policy evaluation viewpoint. The fact that indices are used enables to combine different units for a given sector, for instance for households kWh/appliance, koe/m2, tep/dwelling… The weight used to get the weighted aggregate is the share of each sub- sector in the total energy consumption of the sub –sectors considered in the calculation.  A value of  ODEX equal to 90 means a 10% energy efficiency gain. The variation of the specific consumption of space heating per dwelling linked to building standards is modelled as the change brought about by the introduction of new dwellings with a better insulation than the whole stock since a base year (e.g. 1990), assuming that the unit consumption of new dwellings is equal to the theoretical value implied by thermal regulations (Fig.2). This effect is calculated as follow: ∆UCnew t = (UCnew t * nbrlpn t + ∆UCnew t-1 * (nbrlpr t – nbrlpn t )) / nbrlpr t with:  ∆UCnew t=0 = ∆UCnew t=1990 = UC t=1990 nbrlpr t : stock of dwellings at year t nbrlpn t : the volume of construction at year t   UC t : unit consumption per dwelling for space heating at year t  
Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector Energy efficiency progress (Figure 1) is measured from the ODEX indicator. This index aggregates the unit consumption trends for each transport mode in a single indicator for the whole sector. It is calculated at the level of 8 modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks, light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, total air transport, rail, and water transport. For cars, energy efficiency is measured by the specific consumption, expressed in litre/100km; for the transport of goods (trucks and light vehicles), the unit consumption per ton-km is used, as the main activity is to move goods; for other modes of transport various indicators of unit consumption are used, taking for each mode the most relevant indicator given the statistics available: toe/passenger for air, goe/pass-km for passenger rail, goe/ton-km for transport of goods by rail and water, toe per vehicle for motorcycles and buses.  The variation of the weighted index of the unit consumption by mode between t-1 and t is defined as follows It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It) with : energy share EC i  (consumption of each mode i   in total transport consumption); unit consumption index UC i (ratio : consumption related to traffic or specific consumption in l/100 km for cars); t refers the current year, t-1 to the previous year. The value at year t can be derived from the value at the previous year by reversing the calculation: It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It) ODEX is set at 100 for a reference year and successive values are then derived for each year t by the value of ODEX at year t-1 multiplied by It /It -1. The energy consumption variation of passenger transport in Figure 4 is broken down into 3 explanatory effects: activity effect (increase in traffic), modal shift effect (from private transport to public transport modes) and energy savings (change in specific consumption per unit of traffic). A positive “modal shift effect” means that the share of public passenger transport in passenger traffic is decreasing (shift from public transport to cars)  or the road in total freight traffic is increasing (shift from rail-water to road): this offsets energy savings. CO2 emissions for total transport are split into 2 explanatory effects (Figure 6): an activity effect due to an increase in traffic of passengers and freight, CO2 savings due to the reduction in the specific emissions of vehicles per unit of traffic.
Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the household sector Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the household sector Household energy consumption, covers all energy consumed in households for space heating, water heating, cooking and electricity.    Figures are reported either aggregated or disaggregated according to the end use categories named and as a total figure or per dwelling or m 2 of housing area. Climate fluctuates from one year to another. When the data is flagged as climate corrected, the data is normalized to reflect similar weather conditions. Consumption in useful energy per degree-day corrects for difference in heating equipment efficiency (which varies according to the fuel  uses) and climate. Energy efficiency indices (ODEX) can be defined as a ratio between the actual energy consumption of the sector in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying sub-sector/ end use in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year. The evaluation of energy savings in household is carried out at the level of three end uses (heating, water heating and cooking) and five large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs). For each end use, the following indicators are used to measure efficiency progress: heating — unit consumption per m 2 per dwelling equivalent to central heating at normal climate; water heating — unit consumption per dwelling with water heating; and cooking — unit consumption per dwelling. The average energy consumption per m 2 per dwelling equivalent to central heating is used to leave out the impact of the diffusion of central heating. The effect of (heating) behaviour was estimated by assuming that technical progress cannot be reversed Household CO 2 -emissions covers the direct CO 2 emitted by fuel combustion.
Net Energy Import Dependency Net Energy Import Dependency The fuel sources: solid fuels, oil and gas refer to Eurostat categories: Solid fuels: Hard coal & Derivatives 2100 (sub categories used: Hard Coal 2111, Patent Fuels 2112, Hard Coke 2121) and Lignite & Derivaties 2200 (sub categories used: Brown Coal (Lignite) 2212, Brown Coal Coke 2220, Brown Coal Briquettes 2230 and Peat 2310). Data for other solid fuels sub categories is not available. Oil: Crude Oil & Feedstocks 3100 and All Petroleum Products 3200 (this includes LPG, refinery gas, motor spirit, kerosenes, naphtha, gas/diesel oil, residual fuel oil, white & industrial spirit, lubricants, bitumen, petroleum coke and other petroleum products) Gas: Natural Gas 4100. Data for other gas products is not available. EU27 net dependence on imports of solid fuels, oil, and gas as a percentage of Gross Inland Energy Consumption by country of origin. MS net (Extra-EU27) dependence on imports of the same products as a percentage of total GIEC, differentiated by intra-EU imports (from another Member State) and extra-EU imports from outside of the EU27. Estimated split of CO 2 emissions from imported fuel versus domestic fuel (for all fossil fuels). Geographical coverage: EU27 member states. No data available for Cyprus and Malta Temporal coverage: 2000-2008, Projections 2020 Data collected annually. Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/coded/info/data/coded/en/Theme9.htm Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/nrg_base.htm Official data (national total and sectoral emissions) reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and under the EU Monitoring Mechanism and EIONET. For the EU-27, these data are compiled by EEA in the European greenhouse gas inventory report: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/technical_report_2008_6/en
Progress on energy efficiency in Europe Progress on energy efficiency in Europe The ODEX index (Fig.1) measures the energy efficiency progress by main sector (industry, transport, households) and for the whole economy (all final consumers). For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; sub-sectors being industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes. The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units and selected so as to provide the best “proxy” of energy efficiency progress, from a policy evaluation viewpoint. The fact that indices are used enables to combine different units for a given sector, for instance for households kWh/appliance, koe/m2, tep/dwelling… The weight used to get the weighted aggregate is the share of each sub- sector in the total energy consumption of the sub –sectors considered in the calculation.  A value of  ODEX equal to 90 means a 10% energy efficiency gain. The variation of the specific consumption of space heating per dwelling linked to building standards is modelled as the change brought about by the introduction of new dwellings with a better insulation than the whole stock since a base year (e.g. 1990), assuming that the unit consumption of new dwellings is equal to the theoretical value implied by thermal regulations (Fig.2). This effect is calculated as follow: ∆UCnew t = (UCnew t * nbrlpn t + ∆UCnew t-1 * (nbrlpr t – nbrlpn t )) / nbrlpr t with:  ∆UCnew t=0 = ∆UCnew t=1990 = UC t=1990 nbrlpr t : stock of dwellings at year t nbrlpn t : the volume of construction at year t   UC t : unit consumption per dwelling for space heating at year t  

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