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Indicators to characterise green infrastructure at the city level and in the peri-urban area
In general, renewable water is abundant in Europe. However, signals from long-term climate and hydrological assessments, including on population dynamics, indicate that there was a 24 % decrease in renewable water resources per capita across Europe between 1960 and 2010, particularly in southern Europe.
The densely populated river basins in different parts of Europe, which correspond to 11 % of the total area of Europe, continue to be hotspots for water stress conditions, and, in the summer of 2014, there were 86 million inhabitants in these areas.
Around 40 % of the inhabitants in the Mediterranean region lived under water stress conditions in the summer of 2014.
Groundwater resources and rivers continue to be affected by overexploitation in many parts of Europe, especially in the western and eastern European basins.
A positive development is that water abstraction decreased by around 7 % between 2002 and 2014.
Agriculture is still the main pressure on renewable water resources. In the spring of 2014, this sector used 66 % of the total water used in Europe. Around 80 % of total water abstraction for agriculture occurred in the Mediterranean region. The total irrigated area in southern Europe increased by 12 % between 2002 and 2014, but the total harvested agricultural production decreased by 36 % in the same period in this region.
On average, water supply for households per capita is around 102 L/person per day in Europe, which means that there is 'no water stress'. However, water scarcity conditions created by population growth and urbanisation, including tourism, have particularly affected small Mediterranean islands and highly populated areas in recent years.
Because of the huge volumes of water abstracted for hydropower and cooling, the hydromorphology and natural hydrological regimes of rivers and lakes continue to be altered.
The targets set in the water scarcity roadmap, as well as the key objectives of the Seventh Environment Action Programme in the context of water quantity, were not achieved in Europe for the years 2002–2014.
This interactive map allows users to explore changes over time in water abstraction by source and water use by sector at sub-basin or river basin scale. The WEI+ has been calculated as the quarterly average per river basin district, for the years 2002-2014, as defined in the European catchments and rivers network system (ECRINS). The ECRINS delineation of river basin districts differs from that defined by Member States under the Water Framework Directive, particularly for transboundary river basin districts.
Statement of revenue and expenditures
In April, the European Environment Agency will help raise awareness of the growing problem of noise pollution across Europe. We discussed with Colin Nugent, an EEA noise pollution expert, the very real health impacts of noise which are often underestimated.
Nature works hard to protect us and to sustain our everyday lives — a fact that is often under-appreciated. But it plays a vital role, providing clean air, clean drinking water, clothing, food and raw materials we use to build shelter. Other benefits are not so well known, such as the role nature plays in alleviating the effects of climate change. To highlight the important role nature plays in our lives, the European Environment Agency (EEA) invites you to participate in capturing how nature benefits you through the ‘NATURE@work’ photography competition.
At all governance levels, public policy making entails making decisions between different options and approaches. Some decisions, such as to invest in fossil fuels or renewables, might involve selecting one option over the other. Others might address the ‘how’ question – we will invest in renewables but which ones are the best for the society? Each policy decision results in outcomes, some of which might be unforeseen, unexpected or even detrimental to those whose lives it is supposed to improve. In the long term, the overall harm can be much larger than gains in the short term. To achieve the positive and lasting results on the ground, policy makers need to be able to make informed decisions, after assessing the benefits and costs of each available option.
Analysis of the Habitat's Directive Member State Conservation Status Assessments under Article 17 for the reporting period 2007-2012 for all marine turtle species.
Map showing nesting sites of the Green turtle and Loggerhead turtle with over 40 nesting sites compiled for Casale, P. and Margaritoulis, D. (Eds.) 2010.
Analysis of the Habitat's Directive Member State Conservation Status Assessments under Article 17 for the reporting period 2007-2012 for marine habitats
False-colour view of total ozone over the North (Arctic) and South (Antarctic) poles. The purple and blue colours indicate lowest ozone presence, while yellow and red indicate higher ozone presence. Ozone concentration is commonly measured in Dobson Units. One Dobson Unit is the number of molecules of ozone that would be required to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 millimetres thick at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/find/global or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 25 Mar 2017, 01:33 AM
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