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Model-based estimates suggest that the volume of water required for irrigation during the period from 1975 to 2010 has increased in the Iberian Peninsula and Italy whereas it has decreased in parts of south-eastern Europe.
For high emissions scenarios, increases in irrigation demand of more than 25% during the 21 st century are projected for most irrigated regions in Europe.
The impact of increasing water requirements is expected to be most acute in southern Europe, where the suitability for rain-fed agriculture is projected to decrease and irrigation requirements are projected to increase most.
Climate change is affecting the interaction of species that depend on each other for food or other reasons. It can disrupt established interactions but also generate novel ones.
Negative effects on single species are often amplified by changes in interactions with other species, in particular for specialist species.
Trend in absolute sea level in European Seas based on satellite measurements (1992–2013)
The rate of global mean sea level rise has accelerated during the last two centuries. Tide gauges show that global mean sea level rose at a rate of around 1.7 mm/year over the 20 th century, but there have been significant decadal variations around this value.
Satellite measurements show a rate of global mean sea-level rise of around 3.2 mm/year over the last two decades.
Global mean sea level rise during the 21 st century will likely occur at a higher rate than during 1971–2010. Process-based models project a rise in 2081–2100, compared to 1986–2005, that is likely to be in the range 0.26–0.54 m for a low emissions scenario (RCP2.6) and 0.45–0.81 m for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). There is low confidence in the projections of semi-empirical models, which project a rise up to twice as large as the process-based models.
Available process-based models indicate global mean sea level rise by 2300 to be less than 1 m for greenhouse gas concentrations that peak and decline and do not exceed 500 ppm CO 2 -equivalent but 1–3 m for concentrations above 700 ppm CO 2 -equivalent.
Absolute sea level is not rising uniformly at all locations, with some locations experiencing much greater than average rise. Coastal impacts also depend on the vertical movement of the land, which can either add to or subtract from climate-induced sea-level change, depending on the particular location.
The map shows the trend in relative sea level at selected European tide gauge stations since 1970. These measured trends are not corrected for local land movement. No attempt has been made to assess the validity of any individual fit, so results should not be treated as suitable for use in planning or policymaking.
Geographical coverage reflects the reporting of tide gauge measurements to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL).
The map shows the projected change in relative sea level in 2081-2100 compared to 1986-2005 for the medium-low emission scenario RCP4.5 based on an ensemble of CMIP5 climate models. Projections consider land movement due to glacial isostatic adjustment but not land subsidence due to human activities. No projections are available for the Black Sea.
Europe can create jobs and encourage innovation by using resources much more efficiently, according to a new report from the European Environment Agency (EEA) which describes a range of policies with proven environmental and economic benefits.
This report highlights the major forces fostering the shift to a resource-efficient green economy in Europe, including the role of EU policies. Currently, the economic and technological changes leading towards green economy objectives across the EU economy are proceeding too slowly; what is required is a much bigger, deeper, and more permanent change in the EU economy and society to create both new opportunities and substitution processes across the economic structure. To bring this about, it is important to study and understand enabling factors and mechanisms at the crossroads of policies and real economy dynamics that could accelerate and direct the transformation.
The natural environment can benefit our health and quality of life, while environmental pollution has significant costs. Unfortunately, such links between environment, health and wellbeing are often ignored within science and policy. A new report highlights the importance of taking a broader, more systemic view.
Waterbase is the generic name given to the EEA's databases on the status and quality of Europe's rivers, lakes, groundwater bodies and transitional, coastal and marine waters, and on the quantity of Europe's water resources
How densely populated is your city? Where are the green areas and transport networks? The European Environment Agency (EEA) now hosts detailed maps and land cover information for the 117 European cities currently included in the new 'Urban Atlas'.
Data on emissions of air pollutants submitted to the LRTAP Convention and copied to EEA and ETC/ACC
The air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention) provides access of the data contained in the EU emission inventory report 1990-2012 under the UNECE Convention on LRTAP.
This document is the annual European Union (EU) emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (UNECE, 1979). The report and its accompanying data are provided as an official submission to the Executive Secretary of UNECE by the European Commission on behalf of the EU as a party. The report is compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in cooperation with the EU Member States.
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